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Flashcards in Primary prevention Deck (9)
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Define: primary, secondary and tertiary prevention

Primary: reducing risk of disease or injury occurring in first place (before symptoms)
Secondary: reducing risk of disease/injury worsening or recurring
Tertiary: reducing risk of disease/injury negatively impacting on person's quality of life or ability to function


Pros+cons of individual approach for risk reduction in primary prevention

Pros: target only high risk individual
individually tailoured and intensive
subject motivated
potentially greater individual health gains
suited to healthcare system
Cons: fewer people helped
more labour intensive
requires trained staff


Pros+cons of population approach for risk reduction in primary prevention

Pros: can use mass media
tackle all levels of risk
can use social marketing techniqque
economies of scale
shift the mean for the risk factors in question
Cons: generalised messages
tendency for public to distrust meedia
accusationss of propaganda
smaller individual health gains but on mass scale
only appropriate for some common diseases


How to reduce health inequalities

give every child the best start in life
enable everyone to maximise their capabilities and have control over their lives
create fair employment and good work for all
ensure healthy standard of living for all
create and develop healthy and sustainable places and communities
strengthen the role and impact of ill health prevention


Differences between health protection, health improvement, prevention

Health Protection: initiatives to protecct against specific dangers such as infectious diseases or accidental injury e.g. condoms, mosquito nets
Health improvement: initiatives to promote and enhaance people's health and wellbeing e.g. health campaigns, better housing
Prevention: Healthcare-based intervention to support health protection and improvement


What is health promotion and how do you improvve it

Process of enabling people to increase control over and improve their health. Moves beyond focus on individual behaviour towards wide range of social and environmental interventions
Action areas: building healthy public policy
Creating supportive environments
strengthening community action
Developing personal skills
re orienting health care service toward prevention of illness and promotion of health


Differences between medical, educational and socioenvironmental model of health improvement

Medical-interventions aimed at reducing specific risk factors for particular diseases. (behavioural=interventions aimed at encouraging peeeople to adopt healthy lifestyles)
Educational-Interventions aimed at developing knowledge and skills to empower people to optimise their health and wellbeing
Socioenvironmental-Socio=nterventions aimed at supporting communities in working otgether to improve their opportunities to live healthy fulfilling lives. Environmental: Interventions aimed at creating environments conductive to health and wellbeing


What determines effectiveness of primary prevention influenced by wide range of individual, societal and environmental determinants

Individual: knowledge, motivation, time/opportunity
Systemic: poverty, literacy/language, family pressures, peer influence, culture or religion, access or availability issues


How to evaluate health promotion initiatives

Quasi experimental design , qualitative assessments of structure and process should bee considered. Cost effectiveness, return on investment and value for money=important. RCT not appropriate