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ESA 3 - Respiratory System > Lung Cancer > Flashcards

Flashcards in Lung Cancer Deck (77)
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1

What is the most common cancer in males? 

Lung

2

What is the lung cancer mortality rate for males? 

Around 100 per 100,000

3

What is happening to the incidence of lung cancer in males? 

It is slowly falling

4

Why is the incidence rate of lung cancer in males falling? 

Due to reduction in smoking 

5

What causes more deaths in women, lung or breast cancer? 

Lung 

6

What is the lung cancer mortality rate in females? 

Around 40 per 100,000

7

What is happening to the incidence of lung cancer in females? 

It is steadily rising 

8

How much does lung cancer incidence vary between socio-economic groups? 

Wide variation- rate three times higher in lowest compared with highest 

9

What is lung cancer overwhelmingly related to? 

Smoking 

10

What is the risk of lung cancer proportional to? 

Regarding smoking 

  • The duration of the habit
  • The number of cigarettes smoked 

 

11

What % of lung cancers are caused by smoking? 

  • 90% in men 
  • 80% in women 

 

12

Apart from smoking, what are the aetiological factors for lung cancer? 

  • Asbestos exposure 
  • Radon exposure 
  • Genetic factors 
  • Dietary factors 

 

13

What is the problem with the signs and symptoms of lung cancer? 

They are relatively non-specific, and overlap with those of many respiratory diseases 

14

When do many lung cancer patients first come to medical attention? 

When they have advanced disease

15

What are the signs and symptoms of a primary lung tumour? 

  • Cough
  • Dyspnoea 
  • Wheezing
  • Haemoptysis 
  • Chest pain 
  • Post-obstructive pneumonia 
  • Weight loss
  • Lethargy / malaise 

16

What are the signs and symptoms of regional metastases of lung cancer? 

  • Superior vena cava obstruction 
  • Hoarseness 
  • Dyspnoea
  • Dysphagia 

 

17

What courses hoarseness in regional metastases of lung cancer? 

Left recurrent laryngeal nerve palsy

18

What causes dyspnoea in regional metastases of lung cancer? 

Phrenic nerve palsy 

19

What are the signs and symptoms of distant metastases of lung cancer? 

  • Bone pain / fractures 
  • CNS symptoms 

 

20

What are the CNS symptoms of distant metastases of lung cancer? 

  • Headache
  • Double vision 
  • Confusion 

 

21

What is paraneoplastic syndrome? 

The presence of symptoms or disease due to the presence of cancer in the body, but not due to the local presence of cancer cells 

22

What are paraneoplastic syndromes mediated by? 

Humoral factors secreted by tumour cells, or the immune response against tumour cells 

23

What humoral factors can cause paraneoplastic syndrome? 

  • Cytokines
  • Hormones 

 

24

What are the types of paraneoplastic syndrome? 

  • Endocrine
  • Neurological 
  • Skeletal 
  • Haematological 
  • Other 

 

25

Give two examples of endocrine paraneoplastic syndromes

  • Hypercalcaemia 
  • Cushing's syndrome 

 

26

Give two examples of neurological paraneoplastic syndromes

  • Encephalopathy
  • Peripheral neuropathy 

 

27

Give an example of a skeletal paraneoplastic syndrome

Finger clubbing

28

Give 3 examples of haematological paraneoplastic syndromes

  • Anaemia 
  • Thrombocytopenia 
  • Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC)

 

29

Give 3 examples of other paraneoplastic syndromes 

  • Nephrotic syndrome 
  • Anorexia
  • Cachexia

 

30

What is the importance of imaging investigations of various types in lung cancer? 

They are central to both diagnosis and assessment of the disease