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ESA 3 - Respiratory System > Pneumonia > Flashcards

Flashcards in Pneumonia Deck (103)
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1

What are the common microorganisms found in the respiratory tract? 

  • Viridans streptococci
  • Neisseria spp 
  • Anaerobes 
  • Candida spp

 

2

What are the less common microorganisms found in the respiratory tract? 

  • Streptococcus pneumonia 
  • Streptococcus pyogenes
  • Haemophillus influenza 

 

3

What natural defences does the respiratory tract have to protect against infection? 

  • Cough and sneezing reflex
  • Muco-ciliary clearance mechanisms 
  • Respiratory mucosal immune system 

 

4

What are the muco-ciliary clearance mechanisms? 

  • Ciliated columnar epithelium 
  • Nasal hairs

 

5

What are the components of the respiratory mucosal immune system? 

  • Lymphoid follicles of the pharynx and tonsils 
  • Alveolar macrophages
  • Secretory IgA and IgG

 

6

What are the main upper respiratory tract infections? 

  • Rhinitis (common cold)
  • Pharyngitis 
  • Epiglottisitis 
  • Laryngitis 
  • Tracheitis 
  • Sinusitis 
  • Ottitis media 

 

7

What is otitis media? 

Inflammation of the middle/inner ear 

8

What are URTs most commonly caused by? 

Viruses 

9

What viruses commonly cause URT infections? 

  • Rhinovirus
  • Coronavirus
  • Influenza/parainfluenza
  • Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV)

 

10

Other than virally, what else can cause URTs? 

Bacterial super-infection 

 

11

What is bacterial super-infection common with? 

  • Sinusitis
  • Otitis media 

 

12

What can URTs caused by bacterial super-infection lead to? 

  • Mastoiditis 
  • Meningitis 
  • Brain abscess

 

13

What is pneumonia? 

General term denoting inflammation of gas-exchanging region of the lung

14

What is pneumonia usually due to? 

Infection, bacterial or viral

15

What is pneumonia an infection of? 

The lung parenchyma 

16

What is pneumonitis? 

Inflammation of the gas-exchanging region of the lung due to causes other than infection, such as physical or chemical damage

17

What is lobar pneumonia?

Pneumonia localised to a particular lobe(s) of the lung

18

What is lobar pneumonia most often due to?

Streptococcus pneumoniae 

19

What is bronchopneumonia?

Pneumonia that is diffuse and patchy

20

What path does infection take in bronchopneumonia?

It starts in the airways, and spreads to adjacent alveoli and lung tissue 

21

What causes bronchopneumonia?

  • Streptococcus pneumoniae
  • Haemophilus influenza
  • Staphylococcus aureus
  • Anaerobes
  • Coliforms

 

22

What is aspiration pneumonia?

Aspiration of food, drink, saliva, or vomit that leads to pneumonia

23

Who is more likely to develop aspiration pneumonia?

  • Individuals with altered levels of consciousness
  • Individuals with problems swallowing

 

24

Why may individuals have an altered level of consciousness?

  • Anaesthesia
  • Drug or alcohol abuse

 

25

Why may an individual have problems swallowing? 

Nerve or oesophageal damage 

26

What organisms are involved in aspiration pneumonia? 

  • Oral flora
  • Anaerobes 

 

27

What is interstital pnuemonia?

Inflammation of the intersticium of the lung 

28

What becomes inflamed in interstitial pneumonia? 

  • Alveolar epithelium 
  • Pulmonary capillary endothelium 
  • Basement membrane 
  • Perivascular and perilymphatic tissues 

 

29

What is chronic pneumonia? 

Inflammation of the lungs that persists for an extended period of time

30

What common bacteria cause pneumonia? 

  • Streptococcus pneumoniae 
  • Haemophilus influenzae 
  • Klebsiella pneumoniae