Tuberculosis Flashcards Preview

ESA 3 - Respiratory System > Tuberculosis > Flashcards

Flashcards in Tuberculosis Deck (93)
Loading flashcards...
1

What do mycobacteria possess? 

A lipid-rich cell wall 

2

What does the lipid-rich cell well of mycobacteria do? 

Retains some dyes, even resisting decolourisation with acid (acid-fast)

3

How is TB spread from person to person? 

By the aerosol route 

4

What is the first site of infection for TB? 

The lung 

5

What is the outcome of primary TB? 

Most infections resolve with local scarring 

6

What does TB post-primary infection refer to? 

The development of tuberculosis beyond the first few weeks 

7

What may happen in TB post-primary infection? 

The infection may progress throughout the body 

8

What is it called when TB spreads throughout the body? 

Miliary spread 

9

What is the outcome of miliary spread of TB? 

  • May resolve spontaneously 
  • May develop into localised infection 

 

10

Give an example of a localised infection that may result from miliary spread of TB

Meningitis 

11

What happens to Mycobacterium TB once inside the body? 

It is ingested by macrophages

12

What happens to Mycobacterium TB once it has been ingested by macrophages? 

It escapes from the phagolysosome to multiply in the cytoplasm 

13

What does the intense immune response to Mycobacterium TB cause? 

Local tissue destruction and cytokine-mediated systemic effects 

14

What does local tissue destruction as a result of TB infection cause? 

Cavitation in the lung 

15

What cytokine-mediated systemic effects are caused by infection with TB? 

Fever and weight loss 

16

What organs may TB affect? 

Any organ of the body 

17

What does TB mimic? 

Both inflammatory and malignant diseases 

18

How may pulmonary TB present? 

  • Chronic cough
  • Haemoptysis 
  • Fever
  • Weight loss
  • Recurrent bacterial pneumonia 

 

19

What happens if pulmonary TB is left untreated? 

It follows a chronic, deteriorating course 

20

How does tuberculous meningitis present? 

  • Fever
  • Slowly deteriorating level of consicousness 

 

21

How may a kidney infection present? 

  • Local infection 
  • Fever
  • Weight loss

 

22

What are the potential complications of a kidney infection? 

  • Ureteric fibrosis 
  • Hydronephropathy 

 

23

What is a common site of bone infection? 

The lumbosacral spine 

24

What may progression of a bone infection in the lumbosacral spine cause? 

  • Vertebral collapse 
  • Nerve compression

25

What may inflamamation of large joints lead to? 

Destructive arthritis 

26

What does Mycobacterium TB stimulate once it has escaped from macrophages? 

An immune response, with the release of IL-12 

27

What is the effect of IL-12? 

It drives the release of IFN-γ and TNF-α from NK and CD4 cells 

28

What is the effect of IFN-γ and TNF-α? 

They activate and recruit more macrophages to the site of infection, resulting in the formation of granulomas 

 

29

What are the primary changes in TB? 

  • Few symptoms 
  • Lymph nodes may become englarged in young people 

 

30

What is the classical presentation of post-primary TB? 

  • Cough (not always productive)
  • Fevers towards the end of the day, or at night 
  • Weight loss and general debility