Micro: opportunistic infections (didnt know it was done already) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Micro: opportunistic infections (didnt know it was done already) Deck (74)
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1

What is a compromised host?

greater than 1 defect in the bodies natural defense
can be defect with innate or adaptive

they have an increased likelihood of suffereing from severe, life threatening infections

2

In general, what are primary deficiencies?

inherited, congenital

3

In general, how do secondary deficiencies arise?

d/t underlying diseases or from a treatment from disease

4

Give examples of primary innate immunodeficiencies?

complement and phagocytic deficiency

something that's wrong with the body's immune system

5

Give examples of secondary innate immunodeficiencies?

Burns- Damage to skin --> 1st barrier to infection and vascular tissue

Trauma/Surgery- organism goes into blood via wound, GI --> sepsis and shock

Obstruction- urine flow via catheter --> UTI , ciliary action, peristalsis

from another source

6

Give examples of primary adaptive immunodeficiencies?

T-cell, B-cell, and combined immunodeficiencies

These usually manifest as peds diseases

7

Give examples of secondary adaptive immunodeficiencies?

Malnutriition, AIDS, cancer, transplantation, stress, pregnancy

All these are immunosuppression

8

What deficiency is C3 and what is it?

A complement deficiency
Affects all immune pathways

C3 is missing --> C3b missing --> no opsonization --> can't remove bacteria

9

What are some bacteria that are involved in C3 complement deficiency?

Enterobacteriaceae
Gram positive cocci
Haemophilus influenzae
Pseudomonas aeruginosa

10

MAC (membrane attack complex), which complements are involved?

C5-9
which cause defects in cell surfaces --> cell death

11

What is the most common recurrent infection with MAC deficiency?

recurrent bacterial meningitis from N. meningitidis

12

Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) occurs with which deficiency and what is it?

Phagocytic deficiency

NADPH oxidase is deficient which leads to a recurrent infection with catalase positive bacteria

13

What are some bacteria assocaited with CGD?

Enterobacteriaceae
Staphyococcus
Pseudomonas aeruginosa
Aspergillus
Mucor (Rhizopus)

14

Leukocyte adhesion deficiency (LAD) occurs with which deficiency and what is it?

Phagocytic deficiency

A defect in LFA-1 integrin protein which allows neutrophils to make their way out of the blood stream by adhering to receptors on the apical surface of endothelial cells in the infected areas --> recurrent infections

No pus, no abscess develops

15

What are some bacteria assocaited with LAD?

Gram pos. cocci, Gram neg. rods

Strep pneumoniae
S. aureus
S. epidermidis
Klebsiella pneumoniae
Enterobacter cloacae
Pseudomonas aeruginosa
Acinetobacter baumanii

16

Most common organism associated with burn wound infections?

P. aeruginosa (50%) and S. aureus (50%)

17

What are other types of infections associated with burn wound infections?

Bacterial infection : coag neg. staph, enterobacteriaceae

Fungal infection: candida (localized), Mucor (disseminated), Aspergillus

Viral infections: herpes, uncommon

17

What are other types of infections associated with burn wound infections?

Bacterial infection : coag neg. staph, enterobacteriaceae

Fungal infection: candida (localized), Mucor (disseminated), Aspergillus

Viral infections: herpes, uncommon

18

In obstruction, what constitutes 40% of nosocomial infections?

catheters --> always check for UTI
common source of bacteremia

18

In obstruction, what constitutes 40% of nosocomial infections?

catheters --> always check for UTI
common source of bacteremia

19

Most common organism associated with obstruction infections?

E.coli
its teh most common community and HAI

19

Most common organism associated with obstruction infections?

E.coli
its teh most common community and HAI

20

T-cell Primary adaptive immunodeficiencies?

DiGeorges*
Viruses, fungal pathogens

20

What are other organisms associated with Obstruction infection?

mostly nosocomial:
-K.pneumoniae (drug resistant)
Proteus
-Pseudomonas (drug resistant
yeast
Enterococci
S.epidermidis

21

B-cell Primary adaptive immunodeficiencies?

X-linked agammaglobulinemia - most common
-No B cells in the periphery
-S.pneumoniae, H.influenzae
Hyper-IgM syndrome, selective IgA deficiency
-Bacterial infections at mucosal surfaces
Non-enveloped viruses (B19, norovirus)

22

Malnutrition affects T-cell or B-cell immunity?

BOTH, t-cell and b-cell immunity

23

T-cell Primary adaptive immunodeficiencies?

DiGeorges
Viruses, fungal pathogens

24

Combined immunodeficiency Primary adaptive immunodeficiencies?

SCID – susceptible to just about anything
Bacteria, viruses, fungi, parasites

25

Malnutrition is..?

secondary adaptive immunodeficiency

an imbalance supply of nutrients and energy and the body's demand to ensure growth, maintenance, and specific function

26

Malnutrition affects which immunity?

BOTH, t-cell and b-cell immunity