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Flashcards in Micro Summary: Virulence Factors Deck (43)
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1

Bacteriodes: Bacilus, Prevotella, Porphoryngeus

LPS, capsule, enterotoxin

2

Histotoxic Clostridia: C. perfringens, C. septicum

Exotoxins, α toxin

3

C. tetani

Tetanus toxin

4

C. botulism

Exotoxin (neurotoxin), Botulinum toxin (type A most serious, persists the longest in the neuron), Spores: heat-resistant (toxin is heat-sensitive)

5

C. difficile

Toxins A & B: enterotoxins, render intestinal epithelial cells nonfunctional & leaky, chemoattractants for neutrophils, provoke inflammation, Binary toxin: causes cytoskeletal effects

6

Campylobacter jejuni

Adhesions, LPS

7

Haemophilus influenzae

Capsules, Hib, LOS, IgA, obtain iron from transferrin

8

Mycoplasma pneumoniae

Adhesins, CARDS toxin, peroxides, inflammation

9

Escherichia coli

(1) Fimbrial & afimbrial adhesins: All produce a common (type 1) pili that attach to mannose receptors, Pathogenic E. coli have a unique pili (CFA for ETEC) to bind unoccupied receptors; (2) Iron acquisition: Produce siderophores w/ high affinity for iron; (3) Toxins: Endotoxin (LPS): outer membrane, Hemolysin: pyelonephritis, Heat-stable enterotoxin: increases cGMP, Heat-labile enterotoxin: increases cAMP, Shiga toxin: inactivates ribosomes

10

Salmonella

LPS: inflammation, Type III secretion system & effectors: Inv/Spa (entry) & Spi/Ssa (survival in macrophages), Pho/PhoQ: controls gene expression, PagC & outer membrane proteins: resist antimicrobial peptides, Adhesins, Typhoid toxin: damages hot DNA, Vi antigen: capsular polysaccharide, Flagella

11

Shigella

LPS, Ipa proteins, Mxi-Spa TTSS needle, IcsA, IcsB, Shiga toxin

12

Yersinia pestis

LPS, TTSS, plasminogen activator

13

Rickettsia rickettsii

Direct actin reorganization (filopodia enhances spread), Phospholipases, proteases, and membrane peroxidation result in host cell damage, Energy parasites

14

Borrelia burgdorferi

Osps (surface lipoproteins, differentially expressed, important for attachment/adhesins)

15

Bacillus anthracis

Capsule, Exotoxins (Edema toxin, Lethal toxin)

16

Francisella tularensis

Capsule, FPI

17

Helicobacter pylori

Urease & flagella (for higher pH), VacA, cag pathogenicity island (type IV secretion system & CagA), LPD, & inflammation/urease

18

Staphylococcus aureus

Multiple adhesion molecules, exotoxins, cell wall components (LTA, peptidoglycan), exotoxins (hemolysins, enterotoxins, exfoliative epidemolytic scalded skin syndromes, toxic shock syndrome toxin), protein A, polysaccharide capsule, peptidoglycan, LTA, resistance molecules

19

Acinetobacter baumanii

Endotoxin

20

Neisseria meningitidis

*Capsule, outer membrane proteins, pili, LOS, IgA-protease, complement-binding proteins

21

Neisseria gonorrhoeae

Pili, Opa proteins, LOS

22

Streptococcus pyogenes

M protein, LTA, cell wall components: hyaluronic acid (disguise molecular mimicry), C5a peptidases (complement), exotoxins: hemolysisn, streptokinase steptodornase, hyaluronidase, erythrogenic toxin

23

Streptococcus pneumoniae

Adherence: neuraminidase, Immune evasion: IgA protease, Inflammation: LTA, Immune evasion: capsule, Defense damage: pneumolysin

24

Listeria monocytogenes

phagosome, a toxin (listeriolysin O; gene: hlyA) which breaks open the phagosome and allows the bacterium to enter the cytoplasm, an actin tail by actA which propels the microbe around the cell, and sometimes into a neighboring cell, allowing cell to cell spread without leaving the cell (eliminates exposure to antibodies)

25

Legionella pneumophila

Intracellular, (1) replication phase (abundant nutrients) & (2) transmission (limiting nutrients), Inhibition of phago-lysosome fusion by remodeling phagosome to look like the RER by recruiting host secretory vesicles from the ER, Type IV secretion system may allow rapid secretion of effector molecules to modulate phagosome and prevent fusion with lysosomes

26

Pseudomonas aeruginosa

exotoxin A: necrosis, endotoxin: shock, pili: adhesion, enzymes (proteases, elastase): tissue damage, leucocidin: inhibits/kills WBCs, phospholipase C: hemolysin, affects WBCs, capsule (slime layer/biofilms): antiphagocytic, contributes to cystic fibrosis, inferferes w/ antibiotic actio+K32n

27

Mycobacterium tuberculosis

mycolic acids, lipids, liparabinomannan (~LPS), cytolysin, adhesin/invasin genes, secretion systems (ESX loci), allow survival & replication of M. tuberculosis within macrophages using complement receptor

28

Mycobacterium leprae

lipid-rich outer "capsule" contains phenolic glycolipid 1 (PGL-1), acid fast, slow-growing, resides within macrophages & Schwann cells (tropism for peripheral nerves)

29

Corynebacterium diphtheria

Adhesins, diphtheria toxin: responsible for the disease, inhibits hot cell protein synthesis by ADP-ribosylating elongation factor 2

30

Vibrio cholera

Cholera toxin: causes increased cAMP levels in intestines --> fluid & electrolyte loss, Zonula occludens toxin (affects tight junctions) & accessory enterotoxin (forms ion channels),Toxin-coregulated pilus, biofilm production, other adhesins, & other colonization factors