Molecular Basis of Neoplasia - Nelson Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Molecular Basis of Neoplasia - Nelson Deck (16):
1

What is the key difference between benign and malignant neoplasms

Benign neoplasms cannot spread to other tissues and malignant neoplasms have th capability to metastasize

2

What four types of mutations cause cancer?

1) Growth-promoting proto-oncogenes
2) Growth-inhibiting tumor supressor genes
3) Genes that regulate apoptosis
4) Genes involved in DNA repair

3

1) Self-sufficiency in Growth Signals

Proliferate without external stimuli, usually a consequence of proto-oncogene activation (need to lose only one allele)

4

2) Insensitivity to growth-inhibitory signals

Inactivation of tumor suppressor genes (need to lose both alleles)

5

3) Altered cellular metabolism

Aerobic Glycolysis (the Warberg effect)

6

4) Evasion of apoptosis

Resistant to programmed cell death via upregulation of Bcl-2

7

5) Limitless replicative potential

Immortality (a stem-cell like property)

8

6) Sustained angiogenesis

Tumor growth necessity

9

7) Ability to invade and metastasize

Processes that are intrinsic to the tumor cells and signals that are initiated from the tissue environment

10

8) Ability to evade host immune response

These are the 8 hallmarks of cancer

11

Define Oncogene

Mutated, overexpressed proto-oncogene

12

Define Oncoprotein

Mutated protein that can't be regulated

13

Define Tumor Supressor Gene

Inhibits cellular proliferation and prevents cell growth; regulates cell cycle, transcription and cellular differentiation; both alleles need to be mutated

14

Define Proto-oncogene

Only one allele needs to be mutated to cause uncontrolled cell growth and proliferation

15

Describe the Warburg Effect

Cancer cells use aerobic glycolysis as a form of cellular respiration characterized by high glucose uptaek and increased conversion of glucose to lactose (fermentation)

16

Describe the Molecular Classification of Cancer

Classification of cancer according to therapeutic targets rather than cells of origin and morphology