Neuro - Anatomy & Physiology (Part 1) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Neuro - Anatomy & Physiology (Part 1) Deck (200)
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1

An alcoholic gets rapid IV fluids for electrolyte disturbance. MRI is taken after he develops acute paralysis. What disease does he have?

Central pontine myelinolysis with paralysis, dysarthria, diplopia, and loss of consciousness; caused by rapid correction of hyponatremia

2

Microglia originate from what embryologic layer?

The mesoderm

3

Except for microglia, all central and peripheral nervous system supportive cells originate from what layer?

The ectoderm

4

What is the function of ependymal cells?

Ependymal cells make cerebrospinal fluid

5

Which two types of cells of the nervous system are derived from neural crest cells?

Schwann cells and peripheral nervous system neurons

6

Central nervous system neurons are derived from ________ (neuroectoderm/neural crest cells) whereas peripheral nervous system neurons are derived from _________(neuroectoderm/neural crest cells).

Neuroectoderm; neural crest cells

7

Which four types of cells are derived from neuroectoderm?

Central nervous system neurons, ependymal cells, astrocytes, oligodendroglia

8

What is Nissl substance, and where is it found?

It is the rough endoplasmic reticulum in the cell body and dendrites (not axon) of a neuron

9

Neurons are _____ (permanent/labile) cells that _____ (do/do not) divide in adulthood.

Permanent; do not

10

On histopathology, what is the response of astrocytes to injury known as?

Reactive gliosis

11

What are the five functions of astrocytes?

Physical support, repair, potassium metabolism, removal of excess neurotransmitter, maintenance of the blood-brain barrier

12

Which cells comprise the blood-brain barrier?

Astrocytes

13

What is the molecular marker for astrocytes?

Glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)

14

In HIV-infected patients, what cell type fuses to form multinucleated giant cells?

Microglia

15

In response to tissue damage, what do microglia transform into?

Large ameboid phagocytic cells

16

What is the histologic appearance of microglia?

They have small, irregular nuclei and relatively little cytoplasm and are not readily discernable in Nissl stains

17

What is the main function of microglia?

Phagocytosis (in the setting of tissue damage) in the central nervous system

18

Which cells in the central nervous system are destroyed in multiple sclerosis?

Oligodendrocytes are attacked in an autoimmune process leading to demyelination

19

What type of cell myelinates multiple (up to 30 each) central nervous system axons?

Oligodendrocyte

20

In Nissl stains, what types of cells appear as small nuclei with dark chromatin and little cytoplasm (like a fried egg)?

Oligodendrocytes

21

Oligodendrocytes are the predominant type of glial cell in _____ (gray/white) matter.

White; the white appearance is due to myelin

22

_____ (Oligodendrocytes/Schwann cells) are found in the central nervous system and myelinate _____ (one/up to 30) axon(s), whereas _____ (oligodendrocytes/Schwann cells) are found in the peripheral nervous system and myelinate _____ (one/up to 30) axon(s)

Oligodendrocytes; up to 30; Schwann cells; one

23

What type of cells promote axonal regeneration in the peripheral nervous system?

Schwann

24

An acoustic neuroma is a tumor derived from which cell type?

Schwann cells; it is a Schwannoma

25

Schwannomas often affect which cranial nerve?

Cranial nerve VIII

26

Schwann cells are derived from what embryonic cell population?

Neural crest cells

27

Which syndrome is characterized by destruction of Schwann cells?

Guillain-Barr syndrome, which involves the acute, self-limited destruction of myelin in the peripheral nervous system

28

What are the four sensory corpuscles?

Meissner's corpuscles, Pacinian corpuscles, Merkel's discs, and free nerve endings

29

What kind of corpuscles are involved in dynamic fine touch (eg, manipulation)?

Meissner's corpuscles; these are quickly-adapting receptors

30

What kinds of corpuscles are located in glabrous (hairless) skin?

Meissner's corpuscles; glabrous skin includes the lips and fingertips