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Flashcards in Neuro - Pharmacology Deck (149)
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1

Which two -agonists are used to treat glaucoma?

Epinephrine and brimonidine

2

How do -agonists treat glaucoma?

They decrease aqueous humor synthesis

3

Which -agonist is contraindicated for closed-angle glaucoma?

Epinephrine

4

Which -blockers are used to treat glaucoma?

Timolol, betaxolol, carteolol

5

By what mechanism do -blockers treat glaucoma?

They decrease aqueous humor secretion

6

How does acetazolamide treat glaucoma?

It decreases aqueous humor secretion by inhibiting carbonic anhydrase

7

Which four cholinomimetics are used to treat glaucoma?

Pilocarpine, carbachol, physostigmine, echothiophate

8

By what mechanism do cholinomimetics treat glaucoma?

They increase outflow of aqueous humor, contract the ciliary muscle, and open the trabecular meshwork

9

Which drug is used for glaucoma in emergencies?

Pilocarpine

10

Which prostaglandin increases the outflow of aqueous humor in glaucoma? Of which prostaglandin is it an analog?

Latanoprost; prostaglandin F2

11

A patient's new glaucoma drug is causing browning of the iris. What is she taking?

Latanoprost

12

Morphine, fentanyl, codeine, heroin, methadone, meperidine, and dextromethorphan are in which category of drugs?

Opioid analgesics

13

What is the mechanism of action of opioid analgesics?

They act as agonists at the mu, delta, and kappa opioid receptors to modulate synaptic transmission

14

Match the following substances with the opioid receptor (mu/delta/kappa) that they bind most avidly: morphine, dynorphin, enkephalin.

Dynorphin is avidly bound to the kappa receptor, enkephalin is avidly bound to the delta receptor, and morphine is avidly bound to the mu receptor

15

Which opioid agonist is used for cough suppression?

Dextromethorphan

16

Which two opioid agonists are used to alleviate diarrhea?

Loperamide and diphenoxylate

17

Which opioid analgesic is used for maintenance programs for heroin addicts?

Methadone

18

What changes in neurotransmitter release result from opioid receptor agonists?

They inhibit release of acetylcholine, norepinephrine, serotonin, glutamate, and substance P

19

A patient well-known to the emergency department presents with respiratory depression, constipation, and miosis. What is the most likely cause of her condition?

Opioid toxicity

20

Despite requiring increasing doses for recreational use, which two adverse effects of opioid use will patients not develop tolerance to?

Miosis and constipation

21

Which two drugs are used to treat opioid toxicity?

Naloxone or naltrexone (opioid receptor antagonists)

22

Butorphanol acts a partial _____ (agonist/antagonist) at opioid _____ (mu/kappa) receptors, and an _____ (agonist/antagonist) at _____ (kappa/delta) receptors.

Agonist; mu; agonist; kappa

23

What is the toxicity of butorphanol?

Withdrawal if a patient is on a full opioid agonist, due to its partial agonist activity

24

What is the benefit of butorphanol over other opioid analgesics?

Butorphanol causes less respiratory depression than full agonists

25

Which analgesic drug is a weak opioid agonist and inhibitor of serotonin and norepinephrine uptake?

Tramadol

26

What is the toxic effect of tramadol?

Decreases seizure threshold

27

What is the clinical use of tramadol?

Chronic pain

28

Which types of seizures are treated with phenytoin? What is its mechanism of action?

Simple and complex partial seizures, tonic-clonic seizures, and status epilepticus; inactivates sodium channels

29

Which types of seizures are treated with carbamazepine? What is its mechanism of action?

Simple and complex partial seizures and tonic-clonic generalized seizures; inactivates sodium channels

30

Which types of seizures are treated with lamotrigine? What is its mechanism of action?

Simple and complex partial seizures and tonic-clonic generalized seizures; inactivates sodium channels