A 6'5" man with long limbs has this CT scan three months after a stroke and "the worst headache of his life." What caused the stroke?
This man likely has Marfan's syndrome and developed a berry aneurysm that caused subarachnoid hemorrhage ("worst headache of his life")
The third division of the trigeminal nerve exits the skull via the foramen _____.
The middle meningeal artery exits at the foramen _____.
Which cranial nerves exit the skull through holes in the posterior cranial fossa?
Cranial nerves VII through XII
The internal auditory meatus contains which two cranial nerves?
Cranial nerves VII and VIII
Which foramen contains cranial nerves IX through XI and the jugular vein?
The jugular foramen
Which cranial nerve is found in the hypoglossal canal?
Cranial nerve XII
The spinal cord exits the skull via the _____ _____.
The spinal roots of cranial nerve XI and the vertebral arteries exit the skull via which opening?
Through which three holes do the three branches of the trigeminal nerve leave the skull? Use the mnemonic Standing Room Only.
V1 through Superior orbital fissure; V2 through foramen Rotundum; V3 through foramen Ovale
The cavernous sinus is a collection of venous sinuses surrounding which gland?
The pituitary gland
The cavernous sinus contains venous return from which structures? What is the drainage of the cavernous sinus?
Blood from the eye and superficial cortex; the internal jugular vein
Which cranial nerves traverse the cavernous sinus?
Cranial nerves III, IV, V1, V2, and VI
What are the manifestations of cavernous sinus syndrome?
Ophthalmoplegia and ophthalmic and mandibular sensory loss
Which artery passes through the cavernous sinus?
Internal carotid artery
A lesion of CN XII results in tongue deviation _____ (toward/away from) the side of the lesion.
Toward (remember: lick your wounds)
A patient's jaw deviates to the right; this indicates a lesion in which cranial nerve, and on which side?
Right cranial nerve V motor lesion; the jaw deviates in the same direction as the side of the cranial nerve V lesion
A lesion in CN X results in uvula deviation _____ (away from/toward) the lesion.
A lesion in cranial nerve XI results in weakness turning the head to the _____ (contralateral/ipsilateral) side and a shoulder droop on the _____ (contralateral/ipsilateral) side.
The upper face receives _____ (unilateral/bilateral) upper motor neuron innervation.
A lower motor neuron lesion after the facial nucleus results in _____ (ipsilateral/contralateral) paralysis of the upper and lower face.
An upper motor neuron lesion between the cortex and the facial nucleus results in what pattern of paralysis in the face?
Contralateral paralysis of the lower face only
Complete destruction of the facial nucleus or its branchial efferent fibers results in what disorder?
Bell's palsy is characterized by peripheral _____ (ipsilateral/contralateral) facial paralysis with an inability to close the _____ (eye/mouth) on the affected side.
Name six conditions that can present with Bell's palsy; use the mnemonic Alexander Graham Bell with an STD.
AIDS, Lyme disease, Herpes zoster, Sarcoidosis, Tumors, Diabetes (remember: ALexander graHam Bell with STD)
Name the three muscles that close the jaw.
Masseter, teMporalis, and Medial pterygoid (remember: the three M's Munch)
Which muscle opens the jaw?
The lateral pterygoid (Lateral Lowers the jaw)
Which nerve innervates all the muscles of mastication?
The trigeminal nerve (V3)
With one exception, all muscles with the root -glossus are innervated by what nerve?
The hypoglossal nerve
All muscles with the root -glossus are innervated by the hypoglossal nerve, except for which one? Which nerve is it innervated by?
The palatoglossus; it is innervated by the vagus nerve