Ocular Trauma Flashcards Preview

2MB Ophthalmology > Ocular Trauma > Flashcards

Flashcards in Ocular Trauma Deck (26)
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1

List the logical order to examine the eye for signs of ocular trauma

Lids
Conjunctiva
Cornea
Anterior segment
Pupils
Fundus

2

How do fluorescein drops help with examining the eye?

Identify areas of epithelial loss - absorb light of one wavelength and emit light of another wavelength

3

What is necessary to document when assessing ocular trauma?

Visual acuity

4

How do orbital blowout fractures occur?

Direct blow to orbit causes increased intraorbital fracture, leading to fracture of orbital wall (usually inferior)

5

List signs of an orbital blowout fracture

Severe swelling
Exophthalmus
Diplopia (damage to inferior rectus)
Numbness

6

What is the main imaging done for orbital blowout fractures?

CT

7

List potential causes of subconjunctival haemorrhage

Valsalva manoeuvre
Trauma
Contact lens
Hypertension
Bleeding disorders

8

How does subconjunctival haemorrhage usually present?

Unilateral red eye with mild irritation
Examination usually normal

9

What is a corneal abrasion?

Disruption in corneal epithelium

10

List causes of corneal abrasion

Trauma (fingernail, brush, particle)
Contact lens irritation
Ocular foreign body
UV keratitis

11

List symptoms + signs of corneal abrasion

Painful
Redness, injected vessels
Photophobia
Ice-rink cornea
Ulceration

12

What is traumatic uveitis?

Inflammation of iris due to trauma which causes necrosis

13

List early symptoms + signs of traumatic uveitis

Photophobia
Decreased visual acuity
Floaters
Intra-ocular tears
Diffuse redness

14

What is hyphema?

Accumulation of red blood cells within anterior chamber of the eye, a sign of severe intra-ocular trauma

15

Retinal detachment is an emergency. True/False?

True

16

How does retinal detachment arise?

Subretinal fluid accumulates between the neurosensory retina and retinal pigment epithelium

17

What are the signs and symptoms of retinal detachment?

Sudden flashes of light
Floaters
"heavy" eye
Shadow/veiled view

18

In optic nerve avulsion, the eye is untreatable and blindness will definitely occur. True/False?

True :(

19

Which connective tissue disease is associated with a dislocated lens?

Marfan's syndrome (or any ligamentous laxity -associated CTD)

20

What happens in sympathetic opththalmia?

Penetrating to one eye causes bilateral inflammation and potential blindness in both eyes

21

How does corneal laceration usually arise?

Something sharp flying into/striking eye (fishhook, metal)

22

Explain Siedel's test for corneal laceration

Apply fluorescein dye; if it appears diluted then there is likely to be a leak (positive test)

23

If you suspect an intra-ocular foreign body, what investigation is done?

XRAY
(Water's view)

24

Which type of chemical burn in the eye is worse - acid or alkali - and why?

Alkali
More penetrating
Scarring changes to conjunctiva + cornea

25

Chemical burn is the only eye injury that needs treatment prior to history taking or examination. True/False?

True

26

Outline management of chemical burn in the eye

Copious irrigation using saline
Monitor pH
Topical anaesthetic if required
THE SOLUTION TO POLLUTION IS DILUTION