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Flashcards in Red Eye Deck (39)
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1

List the main conditions that cause a red eye

Conjunctivitis
Keratitis
Anterior uveitis
Scleritis
Acute closed-angle glaucoma
Haemorrhage
Orbital cellulitis

2

What is blepharitis?

Inflamed eyelids

3

List the two main causes of anterior blepharitis

Seborrheic scales on lashes
Staphylococcal infection involving lash follicle

4

List the main cause of posterior blepharitis

Meibomian (tarsal) gland dysfunction

5

How do the appearances of anterior + posterior blepharitis differ?

Anterior: red lid margin
Posterior: red in deep part of lid

6

List signs of seborrheic anterior blepharitis

Red lid margin
Scales
Dandruff
Seborrheic dermatitis

7

List signs of Staphyloccoal anterior blepharitis

Red lid margin
Distorted/loss of lashes
Styes, ulcers
Corneal staining

8

List signs of posterior blepharitis (Meibomian gland dysfunction)

Normal lid margin + skin
Swelling
Dried secretions
Chalazia (Meibomian cyst)
Acne rosacea

9

Meibomian cysts can induce astigmatism. True/False?

True

10

Outline treatment of blepharitis

Lid hygiene (bathing, warm massage)
Supplementary teardrops
Oral doxycycline for 2-3 months

11

List clinical features of conjunctivitis

Red, gritty eye
Discharge
Itch
Papillae or follicles
Chemosis (oedema)

12

What are papillae and which type of conjunctivitis are they seen in?

Tiny bubble-wrap-like lumps with central red dot
Bacterial conjunctivitis

13

What are follicles and which type of conjunctivitis are they seen in?

Diffuse redness with grainy rice-like aggregations
Viral/chlamydial conjunctivitis

14

Vision is usually unaffected in conjunctivitis. True/False?

True

15

Watery discharge is associated with bacterial/viral conjunctivitis and sticky discharge is associated with bacterial/viral discharge

Watery discharge is associated with viral conjunctivitis and sticky discharge is associated with bacterial conjunctivitis

16

Acute bacterial conjunctivitis does not require treatment. True/False?

True
Usually self-limiting and resolves within 14 days, but can use antibiotic to speed up recovery

17

Describe the pattern of disease symptoms in bacterial conjunctivitis

Symptoms begin in one eye but spread to both

18

What is the 1st line antibiotic treatment for bacterial conjunctivitis?

Chloramphenicol eye drops

19

What are Acanthamoeba corneal ulcers associated with?

Contact lenses

20

List clinical features of corneal ulcers

Severe needle-like pain
Photophobia
Profuse watering
Circumcorneal redness
Hypopyon

21

How does exposure keratitis arise?

Dryness of cornea e.g. thyroid, VII palsy

22

Which disease is keratoconjunctivitis sicca associated with?

Sjogren's disease

23

Deficiency in which vitamin can lead to dry eyes?

Vitamin A

24

How are corneal ulcers treated?

Identify cause with corneal scrape + Gram stain
Antimicrobial if bacterial (ofloxacin)
Antiviral if herpetic (acyclovir)
Anti-inflammatory if autoimmune

25

Anterior uveitis is synonymous with the term iritis. True/False?

True
Essentially inflammation of anterior chamber of the eye

26

List clinical features of anterior uveitis

Pain
Vision may be reduced
Photophobia
Circumcorneal red eye
Ciliary injections
Hypopyon

27

Outline management of anterior uveitis

Topical steroids
Mydriatics
Antimicrobial if infection

28

Which conditions are associated with episcleritis?

Gout
IBD

29

Where does inflammation occur in episcleritis?

Between conjunctiva and sclera

30

Scleritis is much more serious than episcleritis - list clinical features

Severe eye pain with radiation
Violaceous hue - injection of deep vascular plexus
Tender globe
Assoc. uveitis