osteology- unit 1 ex. 1 QQ Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in osteology- unit 1 ex. 1 QQ Deck (53):
1

what are the 4 basic tissues of the human body?

epithelial, muscle, neural, connective

2

what is the function of an osteoblast?

form bone

3

what is the function of an osteocyte?

maintain or nurture bone

4

what is the function of the osteoclast?

remodel bone

5

what are bone cells embedded in?

an amorphous matrix consisting of ground substance, protein fibers and various minerals

6

what is the primary constituent of ground substance?

GAGs

7

what is the principle type of protein fiber in bone?

type 1 collagen

8

what is the most frequently described deposit in bone?

hydroxyapatite

9

what is wolff's law as it pertains to bone?

living tissue will respond to stressors; bone is formed or absorbed in response to various stressors

10

what 3 responses of "living" bone were stressed in class?

its ability to heal, to remodel under stressors and to age

11

bone is the embryological derivative of which specific connective tissues?

mesenchyme and or cartilage

12

what is the name given to the pattern of ossification in mesenchyme?

intramembranous ossification

13

what is the timing for the appearance of the intramembranous ossification?

from the 2nd to 3rd month in utero

14

what part of the axial skeleton is primarily formed by intramembranous ossification?

the skull

15

which bone of the appendicular skeleton is partially formed by intramembranous ossification?

clavicle

16

what is the name given to the pattern of ossification in cartilage?

endochondral ossification

17

what is the timing for the appearance of ossification in cartilage?

2nd-5th month in utero

18

what part of the skull is derived from endochondral ossification?

chondrocranium

19

what are the primary sources of variation observed in bone?

sexual dimorphism, ontogenic variation, geographic variation, idiosyncratic variation

20

what are the 6 most commonly used classifications of normal bone?

long, short, flat, irregular, paranasal sinus/ pneumatic, sesamoid

21

what are the classifications given to abnormal bone stressed in spinal?

heterotopic or accessory bone

22

what is the name given to bone formed in a non-bone location?

heterotopic bone

23

what is the primary characteristic of short bone?

cuboidal

24

what are examples of short bone?

carpus and tarsus

25

what are examples of flat bone?

parietal and sternum

26

what are characteristics of pneumatic bone?

air spaces within the bone

27

what are examples of pneumatic bone?

frontal, ethmoid, maxilla, sphenoid

28

what bones contain paranasal sinuses?

frontal, ethmoid, maxilla and sphenoid

29

what is the characteristic of a sesamoid bone?

bone develops within a tendon

30

what are consistent examples of sesamoid bones?

patella and pisiform

31

what are examples of heterotopic bone?

calcific deposits in the pineal gland, heart and ligaments

32

what are examples of accessory bone?

para-articular processes and bony spurs of vertebrae

33

what are the 4 basic feature categories?

elevations, depressions, tunnels or passageways and facets

34

what are the types of osseous elevations?

linear rounded and sharp

35

what are the types of osseous linear elevation?

line, ridge and crest

36

what are the types of rounded osseous elevations?

tubercle, protuberance, trochanter, tuber or tuberosity and malleolus

37

what is the definition of an osseous trochanter?

a large blunt projection from the surface of a bone with a significant base and height

38

what is the definition of an osseous malleolus?

a hammer-head like elevation on the surface of a bone

39

what are the categories of sharp osseous elevations?

spine and process

40

what are the categories of osseous depressions?

linear and rounded depressions

41

what are the categories of osseous linear depressions?

notch or incisure, groove and sulcus

42

what are the categories of rounded osseous depressions?

fovea and fossa

43

what is the definition of an osseous fovea?

shallow depression of variable circumference on the surface of a bone

44

what are names given to openings on the surface of bone?

ostium or orifice and hiatus

45

what is the definition of an osseous hiatus?

irregular opening on the surface of a bone

46

what are the names given to osseous ostia which completely penetrate bone?

foramen or canal

47

what is the definition of an osseous foramen?

ostium passing completely through a thin region of bone

48

what is the definition of an osseous canal?

ostium passing completely through a thick region of bone

49

what is the name given to an ostium which does not completely penetrate through a region of bone but appears as a blind-ended passageway?

meatus

50

what is the definition of an osseous fissure?

irregular slit-like or crack-like appearance between the surfaces of adjacent bones

51

what are the categories of osseous facets?

flat facets and rounded facets

52

what are the categories of rounded osseous facets?

articular heads and articular condyles

53

what is the definition of an osseous condyle?

a knuckle-shaped surface on bone for osseous articulation