Flashcards in osteology- unit 1 ex. 1 QQ Deck (53):
what are the 4 basic tissues of the human body?
epithelial, muscle, neural, connective
what is the function of an osteoblast?
what is the function of an osteocyte?
maintain or nurture bone
what is the function of the osteoclast?
what are bone cells embedded in?
an amorphous matrix consisting of ground substance, protein fibers and various minerals
what is the primary constituent of ground substance?
what is the principle type of protein fiber in bone?
type 1 collagen
what is the most frequently described deposit in bone?
what is wolff's law as it pertains to bone?
living tissue will respond to stressors; bone is formed or absorbed in response to various stressors
what 3 responses of "living" bone were stressed in class?
its ability to heal, to remodel under stressors and to age
bone is the embryological derivative of which specific connective tissues?
mesenchyme and or cartilage
what is the name given to the pattern of ossification in mesenchyme?
what is the timing for the appearance of the intramembranous ossification?
from the 2nd to 3rd month in utero
what part of the axial skeleton is primarily formed by intramembranous ossification?
which bone of the appendicular skeleton is partially formed by intramembranous ossification?
what is the name given to the pattern of ossification in cartilage?
what is the timing for the appearance of ossification in cartilage?
2nd-5th month in utero
what part of the skull is derived from endochondral ossification?
what are the primary sources of variation observed in bone?
sexual dimorphism, ontogenic variation, geographic variation, idiosyncratic variation
what are the 6 most commonly used classifications of normal bone?
long, short, flat, irregular, paranasal sinus/ pneumatic, sesamoid
what are the classifications given to abnormal bone stressed in spinal?
heterotopic or accessory bone
what is the name given to bone formed in a non-bone location?
what is the primary characteristic of short bone?
what are examples of short bone?
carpus and tarsus
what are examples of flat bone?
parietal and sternum
what are characteristics of pneumatic bone?
air spaces within the bone
what are examples of pneumatic bone?
frontal, ethmoid, maxilla, sphenoid
what bones contain paranasal sinuses?
frontal, ethmoid, maxilla and sphenoid
what is the characteristic of a sesamoid bone?
bone develops within a tendon
what are consistent examples of sesamoid bones?
patella and pisiform
what are examples of heterotopic bone?
calcific deposits in the pineal gland, heart and ligaments
what are examples of accessory bone?
para-articular processes and bony spurs of vertebrae
what are the 4 basic feature categories?
elevations, depressions, tunnels or passageways and facets
what are the types of osseous elevations?
linear rounded and sharp
what are the types of osseous linear elevation?
line, ridge and crest
what are the types of rounded osseous elevations?
tubercle, protuberance, trochanter, tuber or tuberosity and malleolus
what is the definition of an osseous trochanter?
a large blunt projection from the surface of a bone with a significant base and height
what is the definition of an osseous malleolus?
a hammer-head like elevation on the surface of a bone
what are the categories of sharp osseous elevations?
spine and process
what are the categories of osseous depressions?
linear and rounded depressions
what are the categories of osseous linear depressions?
notch or incisure, groove and sulcus
what are the categories of rounded osseous depressions?
fovea and fossa
what is the definition of an osseous fovea?
shallow depression of variable circumference on the surface of a bone
what are names given to openings on the surface of bone?
ostium or orifice and hiatus
what is the definition of an osseous hiatus?
irregular opening on the surface of a bone
what are the names given to osseous ostia which completely penetrate bone?
foramen or canal
what is the definition of an osseous foramen?
ostium passing completely through a thin region of bone
what is the definition of an osseous canal?
ostium passing completely through a thick region of bone
what is the name given to an ostium which does not completely penetrate through a region of bone but appears as a blind-ended passageway?
what is the definition of an osseous fissure?
irregular slit-like or crack-like appearance between the surfaces of adjacent bones
what are the categories of osseous facets?
flat facets and rounded facets
what are the categories of rounded osseous facets?
articular heads and articular condyles