Part 1-Antimicrobials Antiseptics, Disinfectants... Flashcards Preview

Fall'20 Pharmacology III > Part 1-Antimicrobials Antiseptics, Disinfectants... > Flashcards

Flashcards in Part 1-Antimicrobials Antiseptics, Disinfectants... Deck (99)
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1

10 main Risk factors for infection

Extremes of age (< 5 ; >65)
Poor nutrition
Obesity
Diabetes mellitus
Peri-op glycemic control
PVD
Use of tobacco
Coexistent infections
Altered immune response
Corticosteroid therapy **

2

other Risk factors for infection

Surgical scrub/Hair Removal
Surgical experience of the surgeon (Inst. V.)
Technique (open vs lap) (Inst. V.)
Duration of procedure (Inst. V.)
Sterilization of instruments (Inst. V.)
Maintenance of periop normothermia (Inst. V.)
Inst. V. = Institutional Variables

3

what have studies shown in cardiothoracic surgery population that will reduce deep sternal infections by 50%

Glucose control

4

for cardiothoracic surgery what is given continuously to reduce surgical site infection compared to injections

continuous insulin infusion

5

what findings for bowel surgeries have shown a significantly lower number of surgical site infections

BS <200 for 48hrs

6

hypoglycemia issues is a concern if we keep the blood sugar too low increase what rate in these patients

mortality increases when compared to conventional treatment

7

Stopping smoking shows a 50% decrease in infection rates- how many weeks must cessation take place

4-8 weeks

8

what are the issues with having the patient stop smoking

we need to provide with resources to be successful

9

name the three negative consequences of hypothermia on infection and impaired healing

Results in peripheral vasoconstriction
Decreased wound oxygen tension
Decreased recruitment of leukocytes

10

when intraoperative warming is used what percent decrease in surgical site infections exist

64% decrease

11

there are few studies that support this claim - but what does immunosuppression from long term use of corticosteroids increase risk of

surgical site infection !

12

long term steroid use and bowel surgeries is associated with

anastomotic leaks

13

True or false

one time corticosteroid dose for n/v and pain does not promote infection

true

14

cefazolin adult dose

2g

15

cefazoline adult dose of 3 grams when weight is

greater or equal to 120kg

16

cefazolin redosing

q4

17

cefazolin half life

1.2-2.2

18

Ceftriaxone adult dose

2g

19

Ceftriaxone recommended redosing

na

20

Ceftriaxone half life

5.4-10.9

21

Cipro adult dose

400mg

22

cipro redosing schedule

na

23

cipro half life

3-7hrs

24

Clindamycin adult dose

900mg

25

clindamycin half life

2-4hrs

26

clindamycin redosing

q6hrs

27

gentamicin adult dose

5mg/kg

28

gentamicin redosing

na

29

gentamicin half lfie

2-3hrs

30

levofloxacin and metronidazole adult dose

500mg