Flashcards in Pathology 4,5,6 : White Blood Cell Pathology Deck (194)
Which is more prevalent in Acute WBC disease: Immature or Mature cells being produce ?
Immature, typically due to -blast expansion
In Chronic WBC disease you will see more mature cells being expanded,
What cells are typically seen in Lymphocytic Leukemia/Lymphomas ?
Lymphoid lineage cells: T and B cells.
What cells are typically seen in Myeloid Leukemia/Lymphomas ?
Myeloid lineage cells: Granulocytes/Monocyte (Neutrophil, Basophil, Eosinophil), Megakaryocytes (platelets).
What is leukopenia ?
Low levels of circulating WBCs
agranulocytosis (Neutrophils, Basophils and Eosinophils) often lead to fatal infections and sepsis !
What is often seen in conjunction with Leukopenia ?
anemia and thrombocytopenia ( especially if leukopenia is due to suppression of Common Myeloid Progenitor Cells)
Common causes of leukopenia are (4)...
Malignancies ( Anything growing in the white bone marrow (malignancies) will cause leukopenia ).
Splenic sequestration (spleen can soak up WBC’s.)
Absolute Neutropenia (loss of neutrophils) is often caused by deficiencies in which vitamins ?
B12 /Folate --> Megaloblastic Anemia
Suppression of GRANULOCYTIC precursor cells ( -->Absolute Neutropenia and agranulocytosis) is often due to ...
Exposure to certain medications:
Clozapine (Anti-psychotic) **** ON BOARDS.
Suppression of MYELOID STEM CELLS (-->Absolute Neutropenia and Agranulocytosis) is often the result of...
Aplastic Anemia, Leukemias, Malignant Lymphomas
Besides being caused by ineffective or suppressed neutrophil production, Absolute Neutropenia can be cut to ACCELERATED REMOVAL of neutrophils in which organ ?
Spleen (Splenic Sequestration )
Also, increased removal can be caused by:
-Immunologic damage to Neutrophils (As seen in Felty Syndrome: rheumatoid arthritis, splenomegaly and neutropenia.)
What is leukocytosis ?
Increased number of WBCs in blood (the type of cell lineage expanded really determines severity)
What is the most common cause of Leukocytosis of Neutrophils ?
Infection of some varying degree ( Pyogenic Bacterial Infections, Sepsis etc.)
Leukocytosis of Eosinophils in the absence of asthma, allergies or parasitic infections should direct you toward which pathology ?
Active Pulmonary Tuberculosis, Brucellosis/Rickettsiosis, Malaria and Inflammatory Bowel Disease can all lead to Leukocytosis of which WBC lineage ?
Sustained activation of the immune system by acute viral infections, brucellosis , active TB and Malignancy will lead to an expansion of what WBC lineage ?
Lymphocytes (T and B cells)
Focus mainly on Sustained Activation due to Viral Infections.
What is the main differential between Reactive Leukocytosis and Acute Leukemia ?
Both will have increased levels of Leukocytes, however Acute Leukemia will be distinguished by the presence of BLASTS in peripheral blood.
A form of non-neoplastic leukocytosis which mimics acute/chronic leukemia.....
What are the three main causes of a leukemoid Rxn ?
-Medications (Steroids) --> Demargination and release into blood stream
Enlargement of lymph node(s) of any etiology...
What is lymphadenitis ?
Painful enlargement of lymph nodes
What is Acute lymphadenitis ?
occurs in nodes draining organs infected with bacteria.
What is Acute Non-Specific Lymphadentis ?
lymph nodes with reactive changes secondary to infections, toxic products or foreign matter from wounds (Not just bacteria as in Acute lymphadenitis).
Do lymphadenitis and lymphadenopathy lead to organized or disorganized nodal architecture ?
Organized. Well marginalized germinal centers.
Follicular Hyperplasia seen in Chronic Non-Specific Lymphadenitis leads to the activation of which kind of cells ?
Sinus Histiocytosis (a subset of Chronic Non-Specific Lymphadenitis) is characterized by distension of sinusoids in lymph nodes draining.....
What is Paracortical Lymphoid Hyperplasia (a subset of Chronic Non-Specific Lymphadenitis) ?
reactive changes in T-lymphocyte regions which transform into immunoblasts
Sometimes seen with vaccines and exposure to certain drugs (phenytoin)
Malignant neoplasms of LYMPH NODES composed of MALIGNANT LYMPHOID cells ( More mature B and T-cells) are characterized as ....
(May also occur in lymphoid tissue outside of lymph nodes like the spleen)
Neoplasms of HEMATOPOIETIC immature cells that involves the MYELOID BONE MARROW are characterized as ...
Leukemia (also, Myeloproliferative diseases)
Localized or disseminated malignant proliferation of plasma cells or B-Cell lymphoid cells leading to the production of monoclonal Ab's are known as
Plasma Cell Dyscrasias