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Flashcards in Pharmacology Deck (90)
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1

What is the main target of cancer that we try direct drugs agaisnt?

The frequent cell cycle

2

Since cancer cell therapy is still working on human cells (and cells that divide rapidly), what is the general therapeutic window for anti-cancer drugs?

Its narrow

3

What tissues have rapid cell division, which can have problems in anti-cancer drugs?

GI tract
Bone marrow
Hair

4

Which polymerase elongates RNA polymers? DNA?

RNA pol elongates RNA polymers
DNA pol elongates DNA

5

What is the type of repair available for DNA replication errors?

Mismatch repair (MMR)

6

What is the type of repair available for small base modifications and single-strand breaks?

Base excision repair (BER)

7

What is the type of repair available for the removal of bulky adducts?

Nucleotide excision repair (NER)

8

What is the type of repair available for double-stranded breaks?

Homologous recombination or nonhomologous end-joining

9

Which cancer involves mutations in MLH1, PMS2, MSH2, or MSH6 in 70-80% of the cases?

Hereditary nonpolyposis colon cancer

10

Sporatic colorectal cancer involves instability of what?

Microsatellites

(leading to errors in insertion/deletion of microsatellite repeat sequences)

11

In the inosine monophosphate pathway, which drug inhibits Ribonucleotide reductase, which prevents GMP --> dGMP?

Hydroxyurea

(also inhibits AMP --> dAMP)

12

In the inosine monophosphate pathway, which drugs inhibits IMPDH, which prevents IMP --> XMP?

6-mercaptopurine

Thioguanine

13

In the inosine monophosphate pathway, which drug inhibits IMP --> Adenylosuccinate?

6-mercaptopurine

14

In the inosine monophosphate pathway, which drugs inhibits dATP --> DNA?

Fludarabine

Cladribine

15

So hydroxyurea inhibits ribonucleotide reductase inhibits the conversion of what 2 things?

UMP --> dUMP
CTP --> dCTP

16

Which drug inhibits the conversion of dCTP --> DNA in the aspartate pathway?

Cytarabine

17

Which drug inhibits the conversion of dUMP --> dTMP in the aspartate pathway by blocking thymidylate synthase?

5-FU

18

Which drug inhibits DHFR in the aspartate pathway, which inhibits the conversion of DHF --> THF?

Methotrexate

19

What is the enzyme that uses an RNA template to synthesize TTAGGG repeates to restore the length on the end of the chromosome?

Telomarase

20

Which does 5-FU form a covalent bond with to inhibit thymidylate synthase?

MTHF

21

What is the orally bioavailable prodrug of 5-FU?

Capecitabine

22

What is Capecitabine a first line treatment for?

Colorectal cancer

23

What is Capecitabine a second line treatment for?

Breast cancer

24

What is the folate analogue that acts like 5-FU, which is believed to induce thymineless cell death?

Pemetrexed

25

Which agents are used to treat epithelial tumors, mesenchymal tumors, carcinomas, and sarcomas?

Alkylating agents

26

Generally, alkylating agents are electrophilic and act on which nucleophilic sites on DNA?

N-7 and O-6 of guanine

27

What are some examples of alkylating agnets?

(not an obj, just to review the names in case they show up on the exam)

cyclophosphamide, mechlorethamine, melphalan, chlorambucil, and thiotepa

28

What "ring" does DNA alkylating agents cleave to cause an icnreased risk of cancer?

guanine imidazole ring --> disruption of DNA molecular structure

29

What 2 things does alkylating agents create abnormal base-pairing with to cause miscoding and mutation?

Alkylated guanine and thymine

30

Which residue does alkylating agents excise (depurination) do ↑ the risk of cancer?

Guanine