Flashcards in Pharmacology Deck (90)
What is the main target of cancer that we try direct drugs agaisnt?
The frequent cell cycle
Since cancer cell therapy is still working on human cells (and cells that divide rapidly), what is the general therapeutic window for anti-cancer drugs?
What tissues have rapid cell division, which can have problems in anti-cancer drugs?
Which polymerase elongates RNA polymers? DNA?
RNA pol elongates RNA polymers
DNA pol elongates DNA
What is the type of repair available for DNA replication errors?
Mismatch repair (MMR)
What is the type of repair available for small base modifications and single-strand breaks?
Base excision repair (BER)
What is the type of repair available for the removal of bulky adducts?
Nucleotide excision repair (NER)
What is the type of repair available for double-stranded breaks?
Homologous recombination or nonhomologous end-joining
Which cancer involves mutations in MLH1, PMS2, MSH2, or MSH6 in 70-80% of the cases?
Hereditary nonpolyposis colon cancer
Sporatic colorectal cancer involves instability of what?
(leading to errors in insertion/deletion of microsatellite repeat sequences)
In the inosine monophosphate pathway, which drug inhibits Ribonucleotide reductase, which prevents GMP --> dGMP?
(also inhibits AMP --> dAMP)
In the inosine monophosphate pathway, which drugs inhibits IMPDH, which prevents IMP --> XMP?
In the inosine monophosphate pathway, which drug inhibits IMP --> Adenylosuccinate?
In the inosine monophosphate pathway, which drugs inhibits dATP --> DNA?
So hydroxyurea inhibits ribonucleotide reductase inhibits the conversion of what 2 things?
UMP --> dUMP
CTP --> dCTP
Which drug inhibits the conversion of dCTP --> DNA in the aspartate pathway?
Which drug inhibits the conversion of dUMP --> dTMP in the aspartate pathway by blocking thymidylate synthase?
Which drug inhibits DHFR in the aspartate pathway, which inhibits the conversion of DHF --> THF?
What is the enzyme that uses an RNA template to synthesize TTAGGG repeates to restore the length on the end of the chromosome?
Which does 5-FU form a covalent bond with to inhibit thymidylate synthase?
What is the orally bioavailable prodrug of 5-FU?
What is Capecitabine a first line treatment for?
What is Capecitabine a second line treatment for?
What is the folate analogue that acts like 5-FU, which is believed to induce thymineless cell death?
Which agents are used to treat epithelial tumors, mesenchymal tumors, carcinomas, and sarcomas?
Generally, alkylating agents are electrophilic and act on which nucleophilic sites on DNA?
N-7 and O-6 of guanine
What are some examples of alkylating agnets?
(not an obj, just to review the names in case they show up on the exam)
cyclophosphamide, mechlorethamine, melphalan, chlorambucil, and thiotepa
What "ring" does DNA alkylating agents cleave to cause an icnreased risk of cancer?
guanine imidazole ring --> disruption of DNA molecular structure
What 2 things does alkylating agents create abnormal base-pairing with to cause miscoding and mutation?
Alkylated guanine and thymine