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Flashcards in Pharmacology Deck (133)
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1

Medications for the stomach, duodenum, and esophagus

Antacids
H2 blockers
PPI's
Sulcralfate
Bismuth
Metachlopramide (Reglan)
Misoprostol (Cytotec)

2

Types of Antacids

Aluminum salts
Magnesium hydroxide
Calcium carbonate

3

MOA of Antacids

Neutralizes gastric acid
Bind bile acids
Inhibit peptic activity
Promote angiogenesis in injured mucosa

4

Drug Interactions of Antacids

Variety
Can bind with drugs taken at the same time
Many antibiotics

5

Brand Names for Magnesium Salts

Maalox
Alamag
Mag-Al
Mag-Al Ultimate
Mylanta

6

Magnesium Salt SE

Diarrhea
Constipation
Abdominal cramps
N/V
Hypermagnesemia

7

When should you use magnesium salts with caution?

Renal insufficiency

8

Brand Names for Aluminum Salts

Acid gone
Gaviscon

9

When should you use aluminum salts with caution?

Renal insufficiency
Can block absorption of phosphate

10

Brand Names of Calcium Carbonate

Tums
Maalox regular chewable
Cclci-Chew
Rolaids
Chooz
Alka-Mints

11

Indications for Calcium Carbonates

Constipation- excess Ca
Bloating
Gas
N/V
Abdominal pain
Xerostomia

12

When should calcium carbonates be taken?

2 hours after other medications

13

When should you use calcium carbonate with caution?

Renal insufficiency

14

Types of H2 Blockers

Cimetidine (Tagamet)
Ranitidine (Zantac)
Famotidine (Pepcid)
Nizatidine (Axid)

15

H2 Blockers Indications

PUD: treatment & maintenance
GERD
Dyspepsia: management

16

MOA of H2 Blockers

Inhibit acid secretion by blocking histamine H2 receptors

17

When should you take H2 blockers?

30-60 minutes prior to a meal

18

SE of H2 Blockers

Thrombocytopenia
Neutropenia
Anemia
Pancytopenia
Renal toxicity: rare
Hepatic toxicity: rare
CNS: rare
Cardiac: rare

19

Rare CNS SE of H2 Blockers

Confusion
Restlessness
Somnolence
Agitation
Headaches
Dizziness
Hallucinations
Focal twitching
Seizures
Unresponsiveness
Apnea: renal &/or hepatic failure

20

Rare Cardiac SE of H2 Blockers

Bradycardia
Hypotension
AV block
Prolongation of QT interval
Sinus & cardiac arrest

21

Unique SE of Cimetidine

Gynecomastia
Impotence
Polymyositis
Interstitial nephritis
Multiple drug interactions (P450)
Cardiac arrhythmias
Hypotension

22

Absorption of H2 blockers

Well absorbed
Peak concentration within 1-3 hours
Reduced if taken with antacids or PPIs

23

Type of PPIs

Omeprazole (Prolisec, Zegrid)
Lansoprazole (Prevacid)
Pantoprazole (Protonix)
Esomeprazole (Nexium)
Dexlansoprazole (Kapidex)
Rabeprazole (AcipHex)

24

Indications for PPIs

PUD
GERD
Zollinger-Ellison syndrome
NSAID-associated ulcers
Eradication of H. pylori infection

25

MOA of PPIs

Irreversibly bind to and inhibits the hydrogen-potassium ATPase pump on the parietal cell membrane
Parietal cells need to be active
Administered before 1st meal of day

26

Onset of Action of PPIs

About 1 hours
Peak concentration in 2 hours

27

SE of PPIs

Diarrhea
Headache
Flatulence (Protonix)

28

Lowest Potential for Drug Interactions

Pantoprazole (Protonix)

29

Greatest Potential for Drug Interactions

Omeprazole (Prilosec, Zegrid)
Esomeprozole (Nexium)

30

Significant drug interaction occurs between clopidogrel and what PPI?

Omeprazole (Prilosec, Zegrid)