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Flashcards in Physiology Deck (187)
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1

What are the layers of the GI wall?

Mucosa
Submucosa
Circular & longitudinal smooth muscle
Serosa

2

What is part of the mucosa?

Layer of epithelial cells specialized for absorption and secretion
Highly vascularized
Innermost layer

3

What is the submucosa consist of?

Consists of collagen, elastin, glands, and blood vessels

4

What is the circular and longitudinal smooth muscle for?

Motility for GI tract

5

Functions of the Mouth

Mostly mechanical digestion
Mastication
Food is broken down into small particles
Chemically digested
Bolus

6

Enzymes of the Mouth

Lingual amylase: carbs
Lingual lipase: lipids

7

What does lipase require to function appropriately?

Co-lipase

8

How many muscles and CN are used for swallowing?

26 muscles
5 CN

9

What CN are used for swallowing?

5
7
9
10
12

10

Esophageal Stage of Swallowing

Begins with crico-pharyngeal relaxation
Involuntary

11

What salivary gland matches up with Stenson's duct?

Parotid gland

12

What salivary glands match up with Wharton's ducts?

Submandibular glands

13

What salivary glands match up with the sublingual ducts?

Sublingual glands

14

How much saliva does the salivary glands produce a day?

1 liter

15

Functions of Saliva

Initial digestion of starches & lipids by salivary enzymes
Dilution & buffering of ingested foods
Lubrication of ingested food to aid its movement

16

Secretions Produced By:

Salivary glands
Gastric mucosal cells
Pancreatic exocrine cells
Liver

17

Functions of the Stomach

Short-term storage
Absorption
Digestion
Secretion
Chemical/enzymatic digestion
Liquefaction of food
Release slowly into sm. intestine
Pepsin & peptidase to break down proteins
Good environment for enzymes to work in

18

Functions of the Small Intestine

Absorption of nutrients

19

Function of the Large Intestine

Absorption of water

20

What does gastric juice convert food to?

Semiliquid called chyme

21

4 Parts of the Stomach

Cardia
Fundus
Body
Pylorus

22

What are the 3 phases of digestion?

Cephalic phase
Gastric phase
Intestinal phase

23

Parts of the brain that are part of the cephalic phase

Cortex
Amygdala
Hypothalmus
Vagus nerve

24

Important Hormones of the Gastric Phase

HCl
Pepsin

25

Define Enterogastrone

hormones in the GI tract as a group

26

Define Intestinal Phase

Enterogastrone hormones secreted in the duodenum & the lower GI tract

27

What does stimulation of the vagal nerve fibers cause release of?

Pancreatic juice and weak contractions of the gallbladder

28

What is released during the gastric phase of digestion?

Cholecystokinin into the blood stream

29

What happens when cholecystokinin reaches the pancreas?

Induces secretion of enzyme-rich pancreatic juice

30

What does secretin cause?

Copious secretion of bicarbonate-rich pancreatic juice