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Flashcards in Problem 1 Deck (37)
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1

Self report

(Self-data)

Is a method of assessing personality that involves asking an individual about his or her behaviors, thoughts and feelings + then inferring that individuals personality on the basis of the responses

--> allows an accurate + efficient measurement at a low cost

2

Self ratings

Is basically the same method as self reports just that the person is asked to rate his individual level of the trait on a given scale

ex.: 1-10

3

Are self ratings more accurate than self reports ?

Not necessarily,

the rating might be a more direct indication of the trait

BUT: people might differ in their understandings of a certain trait

ex.: misinterpreting impulsivity as a king of spontaneous tendency

4

Observer/Informant report

(Informant-Data)

Is a method that involves asking a third party for a certain individuals behaviours, thoughts and feelings

5

What are the advantages vs disadvantages of the observer report ?

Advantage: An individuals personality might be judged more objectively

 

Disadvantage:

a) The person might be inclined to present a good or bad impression for that individual

--> enhancement vs diminishing bias

b) some feelings + thought might never even be observed

c) expensive + time-consuming

6

Direct observation

(Behavior- data)

Is a method where a persons behavior is directly observed

--> the trait is measured by observing the frequency or intensity with which the individual performs those behaviors

ex.: how frequently you talk on phone, visit friends etc. --> to assess sociability

7

Biodata

(Live-data)

Is a method where some records of the persons life, which seem likely to be relevant to an individuals personality, are obtained

 

ex.: speeding ticket

--> recklesness

8

What are advantages vs disadvantages of obtaining biodata ?

Advantage:

They are objective indicators of behavior

 

Disadvantage:

Not always clear if it is an accurate indicator

--> Interpretation might not always be correct

9

Why are self reports and observer reports more commonly and widely used ?

They provide extremely quick + cheap methods of measuring a wide array of traits with generally good levels of reliability + validity

10

Which four methods can be used to assess personality traits ?

1. Self report

2. Observer report

3. Direct Observation

4. Biodata

11

Brunswiks lens model

States that elements in the environment can serve as a kind of lens through which observers indirectly perceive underlying constructs

--> involve cue utilization + cue validity

12

Cue utilization (Brunswik lens model)

Refers to the link between the observable cue + observers judgment

ex.: organized desk --> conscientiousness

13

Cue validity (Brunswik lens model)

Refers to the link between the observable cue + the occupants actual level of the underlying construct

14

According to Brunswiks model the mechanisms linking individuals to the environments they inhabit fall into 2 categories.

Which are they ?

1. Identity claims

a) self directed

b) other directed

 

2. Behavioral residue

a) interior

b) exterior

15

Self-directed identity claims

Refer to symbolic statements made by the occupants for their own benefit, intended to reinforce their self views

ex.: decorating ones room in a way that reflects ones personality, hobbies etc

16

Other directed claims

Refer to symbols that have shared meanings to make statements to others about how they would like to be regarded

--> intentionally communicating ones attitudes +values to others

ex.: office may be designed in a way that suggests to others a conscientious, hard working disposition

17

Interior behavioral residue

Refer to the physical traces of activities conducted in ones immediate environment (at home), reflecting past or anticipated behaviors

ex.: unopened bottle of wine + chairs arranged in a circle

--> awaiting guests

18

Exterior behavioral residue

Refer to the physical traces of activities conducted outside of ones immediate environment (outside)

ex.: ski pass

--> knows how to ski

19

What is the "2-Step inference process" to form impressions about a person ?

1. Observers infer behaviors that created physical evidence

 

2. Observers infer the dispositions that underlie the behaviors

--> assuming that no stereotypes intervene

ex.: organized workspace

  1.  person organizes his/her belongings
  2. high levels of conscientiousness

20

How do stereotypes impact the judgements of a person ?

The stereotype might be associated with a whole set of traits, some of which may have no direct link to the evidence in the environment

ex.: noticing asian books on a shelve will activate asian stereotypes

21

EAR

Is a microcassette recorder that tracks ambient sounds in peoples environments by recording them over a period of up to 4 days

--> it therefore adopts the unique observer perspective of lived-day studies

22

What are personality constructs ?/ What is a personality ?

It refers to inferred characteristics or traits of a person

23

What are possible biases that one might encounter when self reporting ?

1. Response bias

2. Acquiescent responding

3. Extreme responding

4. Self perception

--> will impede the validity of the self report measure

24

Response bias

Responding in a way that will present the self in a more favorable light

25

Acquiescent responding

Agreeing with response without considering what the question is asking

26

Extreme responding

Giving extreme ratings on scales

--> over-exaggeration

27

Why might our own self perception provoke biased responding ?

Because, people are predisposed toward self enhancement or trying to maintain positivity of the self at the expense of being unrealistic or simply wrong

--> requires a person to fully know his/herself

28

Principle of aggregation

States that in receiving a number of judgments from many people, the reliability of the results will increase

--> supports Informant reports

29

What are Multiple methods ? Why can they be helpful ?

1. Utilizing more than one method to measure a concept

2. May help demonstrate construct validity + increases the accuracy of results

30

Fundamental attribution error

Underestimating situational factors/circumstances but overestimating personal factors