Is a method of assessing personality that involves asking an individual about his or her behaviors, thoughts and feelings + then inferring that individuals personality on the basis of the responses
--> allows an accurate + efficient measurement at a low cost
Is basically the same method as self reports just that the person is asked to rate his individual level of the trait on a given scale
Are self ratings more accurate than self reports ?
the rating might be a more direct indication of the trait
BUT: people might differ in their understandings of a certain trait
ex.: misinterpreting impulsivity as a king of spontaneous tendency
Is a method that involves asking a third party for a certain individuals behaviours, thoughts and feelings
What are the advantages vs disadvantages of the observer report ?
Advantage: An individuals personality might be judged more objectively
a) The person might be inclined to present a good or bad impression for that individual
--> enhancement vs diminishing bias
b) some feelings + thought might never even be observed
c) expensive + time-consuming
Is a method where a persons behavior is directly observed
--> the trait is measured by observing the frequency or intensity with which the individual performs those behaviors
ex.: how frequently you talk on phone, visit friends etc. --> to assess sociability
Is a method where some records of the persons life, which seem likely to be relevant to an individuals personality, are obtained
ex.: speeding ticket
What are advantages vs disadvantages of obtaining biodata ?
They are objective indicators of behavior
Not always clear if it is an accurate indicator
--> Interpretation might not always be correct
Why are self reports and observer reports more commonly and widely used ?
They provide extremely quick + cheap methods of measuring a wide array of traits with generally good levels of reliability + validity
Which four methods can be used to assess personality traits ?
1. Self report
2. Observer report
3. Direct Observation
Brunswiks lens model
States that elements in the environment can serve as a kind of lens through which observers indirectly perceive underlying constructs
--> involve cue utilization + cue validity
Cue utilization (Brunswik lens model)
Refers to the link between the observable cue + observers judgment
ex.: organized desk --> conscientiousness
Cue validity (Brunswik lens model)
Refers to the link between the observable cue + the occupants actual level of the underlying construct
According to Brunswiks model the mechanisms linking individuals to the environments they inhabit fall into 2 categories.
Which are they ?
1. Identity claims
a) self directed
b) other directed
2. Behavioral residue
Self-directed identity claims
Refer to symbolic statements made by the occupants for their own benefit, intended to reinforce their self views
ex.: decorating ones room in a way that reflects ones personality, hobbies etc
Other directed claims
Refer to symbols that have shared meanings to make statements to others about how they would like to be regarded
--> intentionally communicating ones attitudes +values to others
ex.: office may be designed in a way that suggests to others a conscientious, hard working disposition
Interior behavioral residue
Refer to the physical traces of activities conducted in ones immediate environment (at home), reflecting past or anticipated behaviors
ex.: unopened bottle of wine + chairs arranged in a circle
--> awaiting guests
Exterior behavioral residue
Refer to the physical traces of activities conducted outside of ones immediate environment (outside)
ex.: ski pass
--> knows how to ski
What is the "2-Step inference process" to form impressions about a person ?
1. Observers infer behaviors that created physical evidence
2. Observers infer the dispositions that underlie the behaviors
--> assuming that no stereotypes intervene
ex.: organized workspace
- person organizes his/her belongings
- high levels of conscientiousness
How do stereotypes impact the judgements of a person ?
The stereotype might be associated with a whole set of traits, some of which may have no direct link to the evidence in the environment
ex.: noticing asian books on a shelve will activate asian stereotypes
Is a microcassette recorder that tracks ambient sounds in peoples environments by recording them over a period of up to 4 days
--> it therefore adopts the unique observer perspective of lived-day studies
What are personality constructs ?/ What is a personality ?
It refers to inferred characteristics or traits of a person
What are possible biases that one might encounter when self reporting ?
1. Response bias
2. Acquiescent responding
3. Extreme responding
4. Self perception
--> will impede the validity of the self report measure
Responding in a way that will present the self in a more favorable light
Agreeing with response without considering what the question is asking
Giving extreme ratings on scales
Why might our own self perception provoke biased responding ?
Because, people are predisposed toward self enhancement or trying to maintain positivity of the self at the expense of being unrealistic or simply wrong
--> requires a person to fully know his/herself
Principle of aggregation
States that in receiving a number of judgments from many people, the reliability of the results will increase
--> supports Informant reports
What are Multiple methods ? Why can they be helpful ?
1. Utilizing more than one method to measure a concept
2. May help demonstrate construct validity + increases the accuracy of results
Fundamental attribution error
Underestimating situational factors/circumstances but overestimating personal factors