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Flashcards in Problem 7 Deck (19)
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1

When assessing the differences among people in their tendencies to behave in ways related to a certain trait, the context of the situation matters a great deal.

But why is the situation not sufficient enough to assess one personality trait, meaning why can't we guess how a person will behave in a situation, based on how he/she behaved in a different situation ?

People still differ consistently in their overall level of a given trait, as observed across many situations

--> important to assess peoples overall patterns of behavior

e.g.: effect of aggregating

2

Within person variability

Occurs when the same person acts very differently on different occasions

3

Person argument

Suggests that due to the fact that behavior is determined in large part by a persons traits, a given individual will act similarly much of the time

4

Situation argument

Suggests that due to the fact that the immediate situation is the primary determinant of behavior, a given individual will act very differently on different occasions

5

Interactionism

Suggests that the processes whereby people react to changing situations should be assessed + personality consists of the differences between individuals in how they react to situations

--> finds middle ground between situationists + personists, BUT puts more emphasis on situationists

6

Density-distributions approach

Involves

 

a) observing people as they conduct their daily lives

b) measuring large numbers of their behaviors in a manner that allows their similarity to be assessed

 

--> used to determine how differently the typical person acts on different occasions

7

Fleeson's whole trait model

Suggests that personality traits are stable distributions of momentary states of any of the big 5

--> shifts occur in response to situational or personal events

8

Within person fluctuations for most of the Big 5 are attributable to fluctuations in affect/emotional states.

How does this show in any of the big 5 traits ?

1. Extraversion + Neuroticism are strongly related to affect

 

2. Conscientiousness is independent of affect, more dependent on the situation

9

Personality state

Refers to short-term variation in a personality construct

--> doesn't disqualify the personality trait

10

What are possible factors that contribute to within person variability ?

1. Life experiences

e.g.: work life different than private life

2. Approach or avoidance nature of an event

  • will trigger the cognitive, affective + behavioral content of avoidance and approach-oriented personality, meaning your dispositions will determine how you will react in any given situation

11

Personality situation transactions

People create/shape their environment based on their personality traits/dispositions

ex.: extraverted - engage in more social situations

12

Why do people choose + create their daily environments + situations according to their personality ?

Because these environments are compatible with their behavioral dispositions (Personality)

--> thus, one might also change situations from incompatible to compatible when uncomfortable

13

Each trait of the big 5 is associated/compatible with a certain type of behavior.

Which are those ?

1. Neuroticism

  • being alone + more intense negative effect

2. Extraversion

  • being with friends

3. Openness to experience

  • engaging less often in passive leisure activities (TV)

4. Conscientiousness

  •  tenacious goal pursuit + high task orientation

5. Agreeableness

  • being more cooperative + avoiding conflicts

14

Is age significant for personality-situation transactions becoming stronger ?

Is it a moderator ?

No,

it was first assumed that they might increase with age due to increasing selectivity, but this wasn't the case

--> BUT: age differences occurred in situations with few constraints

15

The following graph is consistent with the ... view.

This suggests a ... within variation.

 

 

1. Personist

2. Small

16

Ecological momentary assessment task

(EMA)

Collecting info based on self reports

--> participants have to report multiple times a day how they feel etc, which then results in a density report

17

The following graph describes the ... view. 

This suggests a ... within variation.

1. Situationist

2. High

18

The following graph describes the ... view. 

This suggests a ... within variation.

1. Personist

2. Small

19

The following barcharts describe the ... view. 

This suggests a ... within variation.

1. Situationist 

2. High