Which methods can you use to assess job performance ?
1. Collecting the number of counterproductive actions
e.x.: lateness, rule violations etc
2. Integrity test
--> objective records of productivity like how many houses sold by real estate agent
5. Personality tests
6. IQ tests
7. Personal references/ Evaluations
Which of the big 5 is positively correlated with job performance ?
Conscientiousness, as this trait will describe ones style of working
--> high levels of it will predict more raises, promotions + higher job status
The correlation strength between conscientiousness + job performance is rather modest (o.2).
It is therefore suggested that specific traits could be better indicators of job performance than any of the big 5.
Which specific trait is this, when it comes to job performance ?
Pro-activity, which involves the tendency to identify opportunities and to act on them
--> "seizing the opportunity"
1. Correlates positively with Extraversion + conscientiousness
2. Moderately correlated with job performance (0.25), thus higher
Are self report questionnaires that are intended to assess a potential employees level of honesty + dependability
--> should predict his/her tendency to refrain from counterproductive behavior
a) Overt integrity test
b) Personality-based test
Overt integrity test
Involves asking the job applicant questions which would indicate whether he/she has committed various dishonest acts
Personality-based integrity test
Involves subtle questions where the respondent doesn't know the underlying intention of the employer to assess his/her integrity
Do integrity tests successfully predict employees performance + behavior on the job ?
Higher scores on integrity tests were modestly related to better job performance
Core self evaluations
Refer to fundamental evaluations people make about themselves
--> its predictive validity is comparable to conscientiousness
Refers to an emotional attachment to organization
--> relaxed to X (work peers)
Associated to the perceived cost-benefit ratio of staying
--> related to X,N,C,O
Refers to the felt obligation to stay
--> relaxed to X,A
States that leadership depends on the qualities of the leader
--> highly correlated Conscientiousness
Computer adaptive testing
Involves actively monitoring responses on each item + selectively administering subsequent items that are most likely to provide responses that are maximally informative about the targeted trait
--> relies on item response theory
Simple selection model
What are the advantages vs disadvantages ?
States that when selecting a candidate we select the good ones, while rejecting bad candidates
Assumption of linearity
--> the more the better, i.e. the more extrovert the better
Failing to look out for traits one doesn't want in an employee
Personality based job analysis
Directly assessing which personality traits facilitate optimal job performance
--> insight into personality traits that are essential/desired in a specific occupation (Predictor criterion correspondence)
Predictor criterion correspondence
Refers to the correlation between specific personality dimensions and specific performance dimensions
Broad vs narrow personality measures
Refer to dimensions, which are comprehensive + appropriate to measure the success at work
Refer to facets, which are used when wanting to assess specific traits
--> in general better predictors
What are possible solutions to faking ?
b) Faking detection
a) Fake warning
b) Forced choice method
c) Non-self reports
d) Item response theory
Employment related motivation distortion index (EMD)
Capturing motivation distortion that is specific to personnel selection context
--> newer version of the faking scale, more valid
Item response theory (Preventive)
Refers to a mathematical model that describes the relationship between the measured trait + the probability of choosing the various response options
Fake warning (Preventive)
Involves an advance warning to test takers that fake detection is being used and that chances of being hired are lower when caught
ex.: telling students there are phone detectors in the bathroom at the MECC
Forced choice method
Involves using items that require one to indicate which of the several equally desirable statements describe them best
--> reduces effect of perceived desirability
Including some items that ask about moral lapses that presumably everyone has committed
--> too high scores on socially desirable characteristics are indicators of faking
Snell's model of applicant faking behavior
Proposes 2 different faking determinants
- Ability to fake
- Motivation to fake
Name the advantages vs disadvantages for Biodata.
- objective, high validity
- Interpretation can be wrong
- Susceptible to faking (ex.:CV)
Name the advantages vs disadvantages of Personal references/evaluations.
- Low reliability + validity, because references are always from people that like you
- Peer references not supervisors
Name the advantages vs disadvantages of Interviews.
- Structured ones have high validity
- Easier to enhance the self
- Bias of first impression (Anchoring)
- Low interrater agreement
Name the advantages and disadvantages of Personality tests.
- Easier to compare different people
- Obtaining specific results
- Unreliable in certain temporary factors
- Requires sufficient reading skills + comprehensiveness
Name the advantages vs disadvantages of IQ tests
- Higher scores result in advantage in reasoning + decision making
- Applicable in a broad sense
--> Highest validity
Bandwidth fidelity dilemma
Using the broad-band versus narrow-band personality assessments to assess potential gains or losses in the predictive or analytical power.