Refers to differences among individuals in a typical tendency to behave, think, or feel in some conceptually related ways, across a variety of relevant situations + across some fairly long period of time.
Structured personality inventories
Are questionnaires that are used for obtaining self- and observer reports of personality
--> "structured" as the individuals being measured are given predetermined options for responding to various items
ex.: answering on yes/no-basis, 1-5 scale etc
Occurs when the average response of items is a good indicator of the element that is coming to those items
Good content validity
Occurs when the items describe a wide array in interests, all of which are related to the element being measured
Unstructured personality inventories/ Projective tests
Are questionnaires that allow individuals to respond in his/her unique way
- has incremental validity
- contrast to structure personality inventories
Is a defense mechanism by which individuals attribute their personality traits to others
--> concept that originated with Freud
Involve presenting respondents with an ambiguous stimulus and asking them to disambiguate the stimulus
ex.: Rorschach inkblot
States that respondents project aspects of their personality in the process of disambiguating unstructured test stimuli
Rorschach inkblot test (Projective test)
Contains a series of 10 inkblot patterns that an individual has to describe + interpret
--> designed to look like one thing in one part + something contradictory in another part
Exner Comprehensive System
Refers to a set of instructions that establishes detailed rules for
1. Delivering the inkblot exam
2. Interpreting the responses
--> provides norms
Refers to the
- adequacy of the object identified, considering its contours + location
- how often the particular object was named spontaneously
Criticism on ECS ?
1. Low reliability
- it is poorly equipped to identify most psychiatric conditions
3. Excessive false positives
- often characterizes normal people as having emotional problems
Thematic apperception test (TAT)
Is a method that asks respondent to formulate a story based on ambiguous scenes in drawings on 31 cards
What is the purpose of the thematic apperception test (TAT)?
It is supposed to elicit information about a persons view of others, their attitudes towards the self + expectations about relationships
Criticism on Thematic apperception test (TAT)?
1. Low test-retest reliability
- there is no standardized administration of this test
- lacks an effective scoring system
What are the 3 basic strategies/approaches to developing personality inventories ?
1. Empirical strategy
2. Factor-analytic strategy
3. Rational strategy
Involves writing down a large number of items that describe a wide variety if actions, thought + feelings on various characteristics
Factor analytic strategy
Involves sorting correlated items together into the same category, while putting uncorrelated items into different ones
- each group of correlated items measures different traits
- can only be used when you already have the items
Involves writing down items specifically for the purpose of assessing each trait to be measured
- conducted rationally in the sense that one tries to produce item that would rationally be considered relevant for the trait
--> HIGHEST VALIDITY IN RELIABILITY
When are the 3 different strategies to developing inventories used ?
What is the goal of research then ?
- when generating items for a given scale + guiding the selection of items for final scale
- when making sure that items intended to measure directs traits really belong to those different factors
- for empirical data, such as correlations with observer ratings on a trait
States that people will want to talk about personality traits that they view as having important consequences in their lives
--> the'll therefore invent some words to describe people who have high/low levels of these important traits
Lexical approach (Strategy)
Using an already existing list of personality-descriptive adjectives that can be found in dictionaries of any language
Big five inventory (BFI)
Refers to a short measure of personality descriptive adjectives
4. Emotional stability
5. Openness to experience
Is a personality inventory that examines a person's Big Five personality traits
- longer + revised
- Includes Neuroticism instead of emotional stability
=> Lexical approach
Hexaco model of personality
Is a six-dimensional model of human personality that includes
1. Honesty-Humility (H)
2. Emotionality (E)
3. Extraversion (X)
4. Agreeableness (A)
5. Conscientiousness (C)
6. Openness to Experience (O)
- full length: 200; half-length: 100
- differentiated among several languages which is how they came up with (H) => Lexical approach
What did comparisons between the 3 strategies to developing inventories show ?
1. Rationally constructed self-report scales, showed higher correlations with observer reports + in general higher validity
3. Little difference among the three approaches in their usefulness in conducting personality inventories
The Rorschach is a problem solving task that is based on perception.
What was its intention ?
What do the stimuli intend to evoke ?
1. Providing some suggestive + obvious shapes that many people will see/identify
2. Providing perceptual "hooks" that will trigger personalized + unique imagery
- making the images look like one thing in one part, but look like something else contradictory in another part
Criticism on Rorschach inkblot test ?
1. Lacks standardized procedures + a set of norms
- needed because seemingly trivial differences in the way an instrument is administered can affect a persons response
- Norms might provide a reference point
2. Poorly equipped to identify most psychiatric conditions
Is a projective task that asks the respondent to depict a human being
Why was the MMPI revised ?
1. Language change
2. Different problems to be assessed
3. Differing norms
--> necessary, but attention to failures that can be made