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1

What suspends the testis in the scrotum?

spermatic cords

2

Where is the testis not covered by the visceral layer of the tunica vaginalis?

Where it attaches to the epididymis and spermatic cord.

3

What lies adjacent superficially to the parietal layer of the tunica vaginalis?

Internal spermatic fascia

4

What is the tough, fibrous outer surface, deep to the visceral layer of the tunica vaginalis, of the testis called?

Tunica albuginea

5

The tunica albuginea thickens on its posterior aspect into a ridge. What is this ridge called?

Mediastinum of the testis

6

What is found in the mediastinum of the testis?

Rete testis = a network of canals

7

What extends inwards into the testis from the mediastinum of the testis?

Fibrous septums which create lobules full of long and highly coiled semifierous tubules.

8

What joins the seminiferous tubules to the rete testis?

Straight tubules

9

Where are sertoli cells found? What is their role?

They are associated with the seminiferous tubules and are involved in spermatogenesis.

10

Where are Leydig cells found? What is their role?

They are cells found in the interstitial tissue, which secrete testosterone.

11

What separates the tubules from the surrounding interstitial tissue?

Blood testis barrier

12

What are the germ stem cells of males called?

Spermatogonium

13

What is the spermatogenic cycle?

The development of A1 spermatogonia through to 256 sperms. The amount of time it taker for reappearance of the same stage of the cycle within a given segment of tube.

14

What is the spermatogenic wave?

Different parts of the tube begin the spermatogenic cycle at different times, in a 'wave', so the production of sperm is constant. The distance on the tube between parts that are in the same stage is the spermatogenic wave.

15

What is the role of the rete testis?

A network of canals in the mediastinum of the testis that seminiferous tubules drain into.

16

What is the role of the epididymis?

A convuluted duct, in which sperm are stored and continue to mature.

17

What is the role of the vas deferens?

A continuation of the epididymis, the vas deferens has relatively thick muscular walls and a minute lumen. During copulation these muscular walls contract, forcing sperm along the tube to be mixed with other components of the ejaculate.

18

What is the role of the seminal vesicles?

They secrete a thick, alkaline fluid that is rich in fructose (energy source for the sperms), amino acids, citrate, prostaglandins and a coagulating agent. This fluid makes up ~60% of the volume of the semen.

19

What is the role of the prostate?

Prostatic fluid makes up ~20% of the volume of semen, and plays a role in activating sperm. It contains proteolytic enzymes and zinc.

20

What is the role of the bulbourethral glands?

Their mucus-like secretion enters the urethra during sexual arousal. Help lubricate and neutralise acidic urine in distal urethra (

21

Where do the bulbourethral glands lie?

They are two pea-sized glands which lie posterolateral to the membranous part of the urethra, largely embedded within the external urethral sphincter. The ducts open into the proximal part of the spongy urethra of the bulb of the penis.

22

What is the name of the mesentery (short peritoneal fold) which suspends the ovaries?

Mesovarium

23

What is the name of the ligament, within the mesovarium, that tethers the ovary to the uterus?

Ovarian ligament

24

What is the ovarian ligament an embryological remenant of?

The superior part of the ovarian gubernaculum.

25

What is the name of the connective tissue capsule of the ovary?

Tunica albuginea of the ovary

26

What covers the tunica albuginea of the ovary? What happens to this layer after puberty?

The smooth layer of the ovarian mesothelium. This has a dull, grayish appearance which becomes progressively scarred and distorted because of the repeated rupture of ovarian follicles and discharge of oocytes during ovulation.

27

The fallopian tubes conduct oocytes between which cavities?

Periovarian peritoneal cavity to the uterine cavity.

28

What is another name for mesonephric cells?

Follicular cells

29

What causes the arrest of oocytes at diplotene (a stage of prophase) in meiosis I?

Oocyte maturation inhibitor (OMI) secreted by the follicular cells.

30

Why is there an increased risk of foetal chromosomal abnormalities in pregnancies of older woman?

Their oocytes have been arrested since birth and therefore have had a longer length of time in which they can be damaged.