Flashcards in Repro - the female reproductive system and pelvic floor Deck (107)
Where do the (primordial) gonads develop initially?
What is the gubernaculum attached to?
Inferior pole of ovary to the labioscrotal folds.
What embryological structure fuses to form the fallopian tubes, uterus, cervix and upper vagina?
What ducts degenerate in a female embryo and which remain and develop?
1. Mullerian/Paramesonephric ducts develop (no MIH secreted)
2. Wolffian/Mesonephric ducts degenerate as no testosterone to sustain them
What ducts degenerate in a male embryo and which remain and develop?
1. Mullerian ducts degenerate (MIH secreted by Sertoli cells)
2. Mesonephric ducts develop (as testosterone secreted by interstitial cells)
What stops the ovaries descending as far as the testis do?
The gubernaculum in the female lies in contact with the fundus of the uterus and adheres to this organ, and thus the ovary can only descend as far as to this level.
What size and shape are the ovaries?
Almond-sized and shaped
How are the ovaries suspended?
By a fold of peritoneum called the mesovarium (part of the broad ligament of the uterus).
What is the remnant of the superior part of the gubernaculum?
The ovarian ligament - it attaches the ovaried to the fundus of the uterus.
What is the remnant of the inferior part of the gubernaculum?
The round ligament of the uterus - it goes from the uterus to the labia majora (through the inguinal canal).
What is the name of the connect tissue capsule of the ovary?
Tunica albuginea of the ovary
What is the name of the epithelium that covers the tunica albuginea?
Smooth layer of ovarian mesothelium.
What is the arterial supply to the ovaries?
The ovarian arteries which come directly off the abdominal aorta, just below the renal arteries.
What is the venous drainage of the ovaries?
It is assymetrical (as in males):
1. Right ovarian vein -> IVC
2. Left ovarian vein -> left renal vein -> IVC
What is the lymph drainage from the ovaries?
Para-aortic nodes (like that of the testis).
What is the name of the pouch of peritoneum that is situated anteriorly to the uterus?
What is the name of the pouch of peritoneum that is situated posteriorly to the uterus?
Pouch of Douglas (rectouterine pouch)
What covers the majority of the outside of the uterus?
A serous membrane of peritoneum.
What layers is the endometrium of the uterus functionally divided into?
1. Stratum basalis - deeper layer, doesn't undergo cyclic changes
2. Stratum functionalis - superficial layer - cyclic growth and shedding
What makes up the greater part of the uterine walls?
Myometrium - mass of smooth muscle
Describe the structure of the glands found in the endometrium:
They are tubular glands which extend from the surface into the connective tissue (stroma).
Which hormone, secreted by the ovaries during folliculogenesis, stimulates growth and proliferation of the endometrium?
After ovulation, which hormone secreted by the newly formed corpus luteum stimulates the endometrium glands to secrete glycogen and causes their extensive coiling, enriching the vascular supply to the mucous membrane i.e. the secretory phase of the endometrium?
What causes the menstrual phase of the uterine cycle?
Withdrawal of hormone support caused by the degeneration of the corpus luteum) and changes in the vascular supply of the endometrium. This leads to breakdown and degeneration of the bulk of the stratum functionalis -> bleeding and shedding of dead tissues.
What is the position of the uterus in relation to the vagina?
What is the position of the uterus in relation to the cervix?
What is the broad ligament of the uterus?
A double layer of peritoneum that extends from the sides of the uterus to the lateral walls and floor of the pelvis.
What is a function of the broad ligament?
It assists in keeping the uterus in position
What is the mesentery that surrounds the uterus called (part of the broad ligament of the uterus)?