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Flashcards in Soft Tissue Tumors - Nelson Deck (18)
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Most common soft tissue sarcoma of childhood and adolescence?



3 main types of rhabdomyosarcomas, and their most important points:

Embryonal Rhabdomyosarcoma: most common subtype (60%);usually occurs in children age 10 years or younger, and often arises in the head and neck and genitourinary tract.
The botryoid subtype of embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma arises in the mucosal lining of hollow organs forming a polypoid, grape like growth (e.g. nasal cavity, urinary bladder, vagina).

Alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma: tends to occur in early to middle adolescence, arises in the deep soft-tissues of the extremities, and represents 20% of rhabdomyosarcomas.

Pleomorphic rhabdomyosarcoma: the rarest of the three subtypes, this sarcoma usually arises in the deep soft-tissues of adults.


What causes Kaposi's sarcoma?

Herpes Virus-8

(4 types, Chronic, lymphadenopathic, transplant-associated, AIDS-assocaited)


Difference between Duchenne and Becker's muscular dystrophy?

Both are x-lnked heriditary disorders of Dystrophin

Duchenne MD = No Dystrophin, 2/3 of cases are familial, symptoms by age 5, duck-like Gait
Hands on knees to stand. Pseudohypertrophy of calves. Wheel chair by age 10. Survive to 35.

Becker MD = Abnormal Dystrophin. Later onset with milder sympotms. Muscle necrosis, then replaced by fat. Can survive fast 40


What are the best imaging modalities for assessing soft tissue tumors int he extremities?

MRI and biopsy


Most common genetic abnormalities in soft tissue tumors:

Neurofibromatosis Type 1
Gardner Syndrome
Osler-Weber-Rendu Syndrome


Where do soft tissue tumors occur?



How do sarcomas metastasize?

Through hematogenous routes


Which is more dangerous?
MIxoid/ round cell liposarcoma?
Pleomorphic liposarcoma?

Pleomorphic is aggressive and metastasizes frequently


Most common location for a leiomyoma?

the uterus!


Most common locations for leiomyosarcomas?

Uterus and GI or anywhere with smooth muscle


What tyoe of tumor is a leiomyoma?

smooth msucle tumor


Wha ttype of tumor is a rhabdomyoma?

Skeletal muscle tumor!


How do you get a Norton neuroma, or a traumatic neuroma?

Norton Neuroma = repeated minor trauma

Traumatic Neuroma = crushed nerve leading to tangled nerve fibers

Sort of forms a fiber mass when they can't reconnect to the right spot


Where do you find giant cell tumors?

The tendon sheaths of the fingers and wrist!

Its a synovial lesion!


What is the type myxamatous lesion we learned about?

Ganglion cyst!

Located in joints
Can make you worried because its a bubble under there, but it is NOT a neoplasm. It's a bubble of escaped synovial fluid


Describe, in no more than a few sentences, the key differences between NF1 and NF2:

Type 1 = More common, Café au lait spots, Plexiform neurofibromas, neurodevelopmental problems

Type 2 = Bilateral acoustic schwannomas in CN VIII


What kind of fibrous tumor-like lesion shows up on x-rays the same way that bone does?

Myositis ossificans

Dont confuse it with an osteosarcoma!