Flashcards in Study Guide Questions- Exam 1 Deck (200)
What is the number of vertebrae in the typical spine?
What constitutes the spine?
the 24 presacral segments; the cervical, thoracic, and lumbar vertebrae
Which mammals do not have seven cervical vertebrae?
the two-toed sloth, manatee, ant bear, and three-toed sloth
Which mammals have more than seven cervical vertebrae?
the ant bear and three-toed sloth
Which mammals have less than seven cervical vertebrae?
the manatee and two-toed sloth
What does the term "cervical" refer to?
the region of the neck
what does the term "lumbar" refer to?
The loin, the region between the rib and the hip
What does the term "coccyx" refer to?
A cuckoo birds' bill or cuckoo birds' beak
Which variations account for the disparity in number and morphology of vertebrae within the population?
gender variation or sexual dimorphism, ontogenetic variation, geographic or population based variation, and idiosyncratic variation.
Differences in the number and morphology of vertebrae within the population based on ethnicity variation is identified as which type of variation?
geographic variation or population based variation
What is the length of a typical male spinal column?
70 cm or 28 in
What is the length of a typical female spinal column?
60 cm or 25 in
What is the length of the male cervical region (both measurements)?
12 cm or 5 in
What is the length of the male thoracic region (both measurements)?
28 cm or 11 in
What is the length of the male lumbar region (both measurements)?
18 cm or 7 in
What is the length of the male sacrum (both measurements)?
12 cm or 5 in
Based on the numbers for individual regions of the vertebral column, what is the length of the male spine (both measurements)?
58 cm or 23 in
How does the vertebral column participate in skeletal formation?
Ribs are formed from the costal process of the embryonic vertebral template
What levels of the vertebral column specifically accommodate weight bearing transfer?
S1-S3 at the auricular surface
What specifically is responsible for shape and position of the human frame?
comparative anterior vs posterior height of the vertebral body and comparative anterior vs posterior height of the intervertebral disc
What organ(s) are specifically associated with the horizontal axis of the skull?
the eye and the vestibular apparatus of the inner ear
What is the general shape of the vertebral body at each region of the spine?
What are the ages of appearance and the events occurring at each step in the formation of bone at the superior and inferior surface of the vertebral body?
ages 7-9 years, appearance of epiphyseal plate centers of ossification
age 12 years, formation of the epiphyseal ring
age 15 years, formation of the epiphyseal rim
What are the names of the openings found around the margins of the vertebral body?
nutrient foramina or vascular foramina
What large opening is usually observed at the back of the vertebral body?
The basivertebral venous foramen
What is the name given to the large vessel exiting the back of the vertebral body?
the basivertebral vein
What is the generic orientation of the pedicle at each region of the spine?
Thoracic- posterior, slight lateral
What ligament will attach to the lamina?
the ligamentum flavum
What classification of bone will para-articular processes represent?