Flashcards in Study Guide Questions- Exam 4 Deck (237):
What are the generic parts of a spinal nerve?
ventral and dorsal nerve rootlets, ventral and dorsal nerve roots, dorsal nerve root ganglion, mixed spinal nerve, and ventral and dorsal primary nerve rami or divisions
What specific types of nerve fibers may be associated with spinal nerves?
a) somatic efferent fibers b) preganglionic visceral, involuntary or autonomic efferent fibers c) postganglionic visceral, involuntary or autonomic efferent fibers
What parts of the peripheral nerve system will contain peripheral sensory processes?
mixed spinal nerve, ventral primary ramus/division, dorsal primary ramus/division
What parts of the peripheral nerve system will contain central sensory processes?
dorsal nerve root and dorsal nerve rootlets
What are the ultimate target cells of the somatic efferent pathways?
What are the ultimate target cells of the visceral efferent pathways?
smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, glandular tissue, and some unique specialized cell types
What cord levels will contain somatic efferent neurons?
cord levels C1 - Co1
What skeletal muscles are specifically innervated via dorsal primary rami/division?
splenius, erector spinae, transversospinalis, suboccipital, interspinalis, intertransversarii, & levator costarum
What skeletal muscle is innervated via both ventral primary rami/divisions and dorsal primary rami/divisions?
Skeletal muscle located on the dorsal side of the extremities will be innervated by which spinal ramus or division branches?
ventral primary ramus/division branches
What are the subdivisions of the visceral division of the peripheral nerve system?
sympathetic, parasympathetic and enteric
What is the location for the enteric nerve system?
along the gastrointestinal tract and organ system
What is the location of the myenteric plexus of Auerbach?
between the longitudinal and circular muscle layers along the entire gut
What function is primarily emphasized for the myenteric plexus of Auerbach?
peristaltic activity along the gastrointestinal tract
What is the location of the submucosal plexus of Meissner?
between the circular muscle layer and the muscularis mucosa layer of the gut
Which enteric plexus lies between the circular muscle layer and the muscularis mucosa layer of the gut?
submucosal plexus of Meissner
What function is primarily emphasized for the submucosal plexus of Meissner?
influence on the process of secretion/absorption of the gut
What locations of the gastrointestinal tract are most influenced by parasympathetics?
the most proximal and distal parts of the gastrointestinal tract
The superior cervical ganglion is the result of fusion of which paravertebral ganglia?
C1-C4 paravertebral ganglia
The middle cervical ganglion is the result of fusion of which paravertebral ganglia?
C5, C6 paravertebral ganglia
The inferior cervical ganglion is the result of fusion of which paravertebral ganglia?
C7-C8 paravertebral ganglia
The stellate ganglion is the result of fusion of which paravertebral ganglia?
C7, C8, T1 paravertebral ganglia
The stellate ganglion will communicate with which spinal nerves?
ventral primary rami of C7, C8 and T1 spinal nerves
Which sympathetic ganglia are located in front of the vertebral body?
prevertebral sympathetic ganglia
What are the names of the most consistent prevertebral ganglia?
celiac ganglion, superior mesenteric ganglion, and inferior mesenteric ganglion
Which of the prevertebral nerve plexuses are more likely to contain secondary sympathetic neurons cell bodies?
cardiac plexus, pulmonary plexus, celiac plexus, and inferior hypogastric (pelvic) plexus
How are the remaining nerve plexuses named?
according to the name of the blood vessel they accompany
Based on the target cell innervated, what are the classifications given to postganglionic sympathetic efferent fibers?
vasomotor fiber, pilomotor fiber, sudomotor fiber, and secretomotor fiber
What is the target of postganglionic sympathetic pilomotor fibers?
smooth muscle of hair follicles; the erector pili muscle
What is the target of postganglionic sympathetic sudomotor fibers?
specialized cells of sudorific glands or sweat glands
How are white fibers classified and to what is their color due?
preganglionic sympathetic efferent fibers which are myelinated
Preganglionic sympathetic efferent fibers will bundle together to form what structure which attaches to the paravertebral sympathetic ganglion?
white ramus communicans
Postganglionic sympathetic efferent fibers will bundle together to form what structure which attachesto the paravertebral sympathetic ganglion?
gray ramus communicans
What forms the sympathetic trunk or sympathetic chain?
the interganglionic rami communicans and paravertebral sympathetic ganglia
What does the splanchnic nerve unite?
paravertebral sympathetic ganglia to the prevertebral sympathetic ganglion
What rami will communicate with the paravertebral ganglia?
white rami communicans, gray rami communicans, interganglionic rami communicans, and splanchnic nerves
What rami or nerves will communicate with prevertebral ganglia?
splanchnic nerves and nerves to the target organs (gastric nerve)
Pelvic splanchnic nerves will connect to what structures?
sacral ventral rami or the sacral nerve plexus and the target organ
Preganglionic sympathetic efferent fibers will pass through what neuronal structures to enter a paravertebral ganglion?
lateral horn, ventral horn, white matter of the cord, ventral nerve rootlet, ventral nerve root, mixed spinal nerve, ventral primary ramus, white ramus communicans, paravertebral ganglion of origin
What is the termination of the horizontal sympathetic neuronal pathway?
smooth muscle or glandular tissue in the parietal wall of the thorax and upper abdomen;
territory roughly corresponding to the T1-T12, L1-L2 dermatomes
What is the termination of the ascending sympathetic neuronal pathway?
smooth muscle or glandular tissue in the head, neck and upper extremity
In the ascending pathway, what is the location of synapse of the preganglionic sympathetic efferent fiber?
In a paravertebral ganglion higher than the paravertebral ganglion of origin
List, in order, the pathway of the postganglionic sympathetic efferent fiber of the ascending pathway which synapses on an erector pili muscle on the back of the upper extremity.
paravertebral ganglion of synpase, gray ramus communicans, ventral primary ramus, synapse on erector pili muscle
What is the termination of the descending sympathetic neuronal pathway?
smooth muscle or glandular tissue in the parietal wall of the lower abdomen, pelvis and lower extremity
In the descending pathway, what is the location of synapse of the preganglionic sympathetic efferent fiber?
in a paravertebral ganglion lower than the paravertebral ganglion of origin
Upper and lower extremities are innervated with sympathetics exclusively derived from which ramus or division?
ventral primary ramus
In the splanchnic pathway, what is the location of synapse of the preganglionic sympathetic efferent fiber?
in a prevertebral ganglion or prevertebral plexus
What is the cord level origin of the sympathetic neruonal pathway to the vertebral artery?
upper thoracic spinal cord levels
Where will preganglionic sympathetic efferent fibers synapse in the pathway to the vertebral artery?
inferior cervical ganglion
What is the cord level origin of the sympathetic neuronal pathway to the head?
upper thoracic spinal cord levels T1-T2 typically
Where will preganglionic sympathetic efferent fibers synapse in the pathway to the head?
superior cervical ganglion
What is the cord level origin of the sympathetic neuronal pathway to the heart?
thoracic spinal cord levels T1-T4, T5
Where will preganglionic sympathetic efferent fibers synapse in the pathway to the heart?
(1) paravertebral ganglia of origin from T1-T4, T5
(2) any cervical paravertebral ganglion
(3) the cardiac plexus
Postganglionic sympathetic efferent fibers may become incorporated in what neuronal structures after the paravertebral ganglion of origin in the pathway to the heart?
cardiac splanchnic nerves
What is the embryonic derivative of the adrenal gland?
the adrenal cortex is derived from mesoderm
the adrenal medulla is derived from neural ectoderm
What cell population of the adrenal medulla represents neural ectoderm?
Preganglionic sympathetic efferent fibers in the pathway to the adrenal gland will be incorporated in what neuronal structures?
the sympathetic pathway to the paravertebral ganglion of origin, then into the lesser splanchnic, least splanchnic, and lumbar splanchnic nerves, finally in the adrenal nerve to the adrenal gland
Where will preganglionic sympathetic efferent fibers synapse in the adrenal gland pathway?
chromaffin cells of the adrenal medulla
Primary parasympathetic efferent neurons will be associated with which spinal nerves?
spinal nerves S2-S4
What is the location for a spinal nerve secondary parasympathetic efferent neuron?
typically an intramural ganglion or neural plexus
Which splanchnic nerves contain preganglionic parasympathetic efferent fibers?
nervi erigentes or pelvic splanchnic nerves
What is the location of the intramural parasympathetic ganglion?
on or in the wall of the target organ
Do spinal nerves typically contain postganglionic parasympathetic efferent fibers?
What is the name of the largest medullary feeder artery?
the artery of Adamkiewicz or the arteria radicalis magna anterior
What are the characteristics of the Artery of Adamkiewicz?
it is a left side, anterior medullary feeder artery, located in the T9/T10 intervertebral foramen, and the primary vascular supply to the lumbar enlargement
What will the intervertebral veins drain into?
the external vertebral venous plexus or Batson's plexus
What is a unique histological feature of the veins of the vertebral column?
they appear to lack valves
What are the specific attachment sites for a cervicial spinal nerve?
the sulcus for the ventral primary ramus on the costotransverse bar & the vertebral artery
What forms teh lumobsacral tunnel?
the lumbosacral ligament, transverse process of L5 and sacral ala
What condition is the result of encroachment on the L5 spinal nerve?
the far out syndrome
What ligament may contribute to the loss of size in the lumbar intervertebral foramen?
the transforaminal ligament
What is more likely the cause of nerve irritation at the sacral intervertebral foramen?
the tilt or position of the entire sacrum relative to the pelvis
What are some examples of destructive lesions of the vertebral body?
tuberculosis, hemangiomas, osteoporosis
What may reduce the impact of intervertebral disc loss of integrity on the intervertebral foramen in the cervical and thoracic spine?
the joint of Luschka in the cervicals, the costocentral joint in the thoracics
What are examples of acquired alterations of the spinal curves identified in class?
obesity, pregnancy and the use of backpacks
Identify the common ligaments of the vertebral column
the 9 common ligaments are the anterior longitudinal ligament, intervertebral disc, posterior longitudinal ligament, ligamentum flavum, capsular ligament, interspinous ligament, ligamentum nuchae, supraspinous ligament and intertransverse ligament
What is the reason that nine common ligaments are identified but only eight will be attached at any specific vertebral couple?
the ligamentum nuchae and supraspinous ligaments attach to the spinous tubercles, but only one of these will be identified at a single vertebral couple
In the fetus, which vertebral levels will demonstrate intervertebral discs?
those between C2 and Co1
What percent of the vertebral column length is contributed by the intervertebral disc?
twenty to twenty-five percent
What is the length of the intervertebral disc contribution to the vertebral column length?
about seven inches
What is the percent of the intervertebral disc height contribution to cervical region length?
What is the contribution of the nucleus pulposus to intervertebral disc cross-section area?
about forty percent
What is the organizational pattern for glycosaminoglycans int he lumbar nucleus pulposus?
they typically lack a binding site for hyaluronic acid and are thus non-aggregated
Which type of collagen is dominant in the annulus fibrosus?
collagen type 1
What is the organizational patter for collagen fibers in the annulus fibrosus?
they are parallel with one another in a single lamellus and angled
What is the organization of collagen fibers between lamellae?
collagen fibers will be angled in the opposite direction such that a spiral- counterspiral organization is observed
What is the cartilage end plate derived from?
the epiphyseal plate
What is the principal type of collagen fiber within the cartilage end plate?
the type II collagen fiber
What is the direction of collagen fibers within the cartilage end plate?
collagen fibers are aligned anterior to posterior
What are the types of receptor endings in the intervertebral disc?
nociceptors and proprioceptors
What is the relationship between size of the intervertebral disc and receptor endings?
the larger the disc, the greater the variety of receptor endings
What are the sources of innervation of the intervertebral disc?
the sinu-vertebral nerve (sinus vertebral nerve, recurrent meningeal nerve)
fibers from the ventral primary ramus, fibers from the white ramus communicans, fibers from the paradiscal ramus communicans, fibers form the gray ramus communicans
What is the name given to the white ramus communicans which becomes embedded within the annulus fibrosus of the intervertebral disc?
the paradiscal ramus communicans
What neural plexus is formed, in part, by fibers from the paradiscal ramus communicans?
the lateral neural plexus of the vertebral column
What is the relationship between aging and cervical spine nerve root characteristics?
the length of the nerve root increases as it descends from its apparent origin on the spinal cord, but the cross-sectional area of the nerve root decreases
What are the division of the embryonic somite?
the sclerotome, myotome, and dermatome
What part of the somite will form the vertebral column?
What structure is formed following migration of sclerotomes to surround the notochord?
the perichordal blastema
What is formed within the perichordal blastema between the sclerotomites?
the intrasclerotomal fissure or fissure of von Ebner
What does the intrasclerotomal fissure or fissure of von Ebner become?
the perichordal disc
What structure forms following migration and subsequent mixing of the sclerotomites?
the vertebral blastema
What part of the intervertebral disc will the notochord form?
the nucleus pulposus
What part of the intervertebral disc will the perichordal disc form?
the annulus fibrosus
What is the earliest indicator of the position of the adult intervertebral disc?
the intrasclerotomal fissure or fissure of von Ebner
What is the function of the anterior longitudinal ligament?
it brakes or limits or limits dorsi-flexion or hyperextension of the vertebral column
What was ossification of of the anterior longitudinal ligament in the lumbar region identified as?
What is ossification of the anterior longitudinal ligament in the lumbar region now identified as?
Diffuse Idiopathic Skeletal Hyperostosis or DISH
Newer research suggests what regional variation in the posterior longitudinal ligament?
prominent in the cervicals, occasional in the thoracics, rare in the lumbars
What is the function of the posterior longitudinal ligament?
it brakes or limits flexion of the vertebral column
Where is ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament most commonly identified?
the cervical spine with an 80% incidence
What is the gender, age, and ethnic bias associated with ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament?
it is greater in males over 50 and has a higher incidence in the Japanese
What is the acronym for ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament?
At one time ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament was an example of what condition?
Diffuse Idiopathic Skeletal Hyperostosis or DISH
what is the name given to the ligamentum flavum based on appearance and histology?
it is a yellow elastic ligament
What is now thought to be a major function of the ligamentum flavum?
it is an early prime factor in extension of the vertebral column
What is the relationship between the capsular ligament and mobility?
the more lax/loose the capsular ligament is, the greater the motion of the joint
If the zygapophyseal capsular ligament is not significantly involved in restricting motion what is its' function?
it is probably involved in proprioceptive feedback to the muscles stabilizing the vertebral couple during movement
What is now thought to be a major function of the interspinous ligament?
it is more likely a proprioceptive transducer for the spinal reflex
What is the name given to the superficial layer of the ligamentum nuchae?
the funicular layer or part
What is the name given to the deep layer of the ligamentum nuchae?
the lamellar layer or part
What are the attachment sites for the superficial layer of the ligamentum nuchae?
the external occipital protuberance, external occipital crest, and spinous tubercle of C7
What is the histological make-up of the human ligamentum nuchae?
it is a yellow elastic ligament, but has more collagen fibers than in quadrupeds
What is the termination level inferiorly for the supraspinous ligament according to current literature?
primarily at L4 (73%); between L4 & L5 (5%)
Where is the supraspinous ligament said to be best developed?
in the lumbar spine
What is now thought to be a major function of the supraspinous ligament?
it is a proprioceptive transducer for the spinal reflex
What forms the ventral slip of the intertransverse ligament in the lumbar spine?
A membranous partition from the vertebral body covers the intervertebral foramen and extends back to the transverse process to form a ventral slip. It is penetrated by the contents of the intervertebral foramen.
What forms the dorsal slip of the intertransverse ligament in the lumbar spine?
A thick partition extends from the lamina and articular processes and extends laterally to blend with the ventral slip to form a septum separating the anterior muscles from the posterior muscles of the body wall.
What are the attachment sites of the posterior atlanto-occipital ligament?
it is attached to the arcuate rim of the posterior arch of C1, to the superior articular process of the lateral mass of C1 and to the posterior margin of the foramen magnum of the occipital bone
What amount of flexion-extension is accommodated by the atlanto-occipital joint?
about twenty-five degrees
What amount of axial rotation is accommodated by the atlanto-occipital joint?
about three to eight degrees one side axial rotation
What amount of lateral bending is accommodated by the atlanto-occipital joint?
about five degrees
What is the ADI?
the Atlanto-Dental Interspace, a radiographic distance between the surfaces of the anterior bursa of the median atlanto-axial joint
What is the ADI of children compared with that of adults?
about 4.5 mm in children; a range of 2-3 mm or about 2.5 mm in adults
What are the degrees of movement facilitated at the atlanto-axial joint?
about 20 degrees flexion-extension, 40 degrees on side axial rotation, and 5 degrees of lateral bending
The occiput-C1-C2 joint complex accounts for what percent of all cervical axial rotation?
What ligament attaches to the anterior margin of the foramen magnum and the tip of the odontoid process of C2?
the apical ligament of the dens or the apicodental ligament
What is the embryonic derivative of the apical ligament of the dens or the apicodental ligament?
What is the function of the alar ligament?
together they function to resist axial rotation
What ligament attaches to the posterior part of the inferior epiphyseal rim and vertebral body of C2 and the anterior rim of the foramen magnum?
the membrana tectoria or tectorial membrane
What are the layers of the membrana tectoria or tectorial membrane?
a superficial layer and deep layer are identified
List, in order, the ligaments in a midsagittal plane from the dura mater at the level of the medulla oblongata to the anterior bursa of the median atlanto-axial joint.
the membrana tectoria or tectorial membrane;
the cruciate ligament;
the capsular ligament of the posterior bursa of the median atlanto-axial joint;
the apical dental ligament of the dens or the apicodental ligament
An intra-articular ligament will be identified with which ribs?
Which vertebrae will have a synovial (diarthrosis) arthrodia costotransverse joint?
At what rib will the superior costotransverse ligament be absent?
the first rib
What ligament will attach to the collum of the twelfth rib?
the superior costotransverse ligament from T11 and the lumbocostal ligament from L1
Which vertebrae will have an attachment for the inferior costotransverse ligament?
Which ribs will have an attachment for the inferior costotransverse ligament?
rib 1 - rib 11
Which vertebrae will have an attachment for the lateral costotransverse ligament?
Which ribs will have an attachment for the lateral costotransverse ligament?
rib 1 - rib 11
What muscle is intimately attached to the superior iliolumbar ligament?
Which of the current ligaments from the iliolumbar ligament complex represents the iliolumbar ligament of classical descriptions?
the superior iliolumbar ligament
Which ligament from the iliolumbar ligament complex represents the lumbosacral ligament of classical descriptions?
the inferior iliolumbar ligament
What is the auricular surface of the ilium composed of?
articular cartilage, interspersed with fibrocartilage
What does ankylosis mean?
a condition of fibrous adhesion occurs within the joint
What is the age and surface bias associated with degenerative arthrosis of the sacro-iliac joint?
age 40, the iliac auricular surface
What is the age and gender bias associated with ankylosis of the sacro-iliac joint?
age 50 and male bias particularly in African American males
What is the age and gender bias associated with ossification of the anterior sacrio-iliac ligament?
age 40 and male bias
Which is the strongest of the sacro-iliac ligaments?
the interosseous sacro-iliac ligament
What passes between the layers of the interosseous sacro-iliac ligament?
dorsal rami from the sacral spinal nerves
What is formed by the continuation of the sacrotuberous ligament along the ischial ramus?
the falciform process
What separates the greater sciatic and lesser sciatic foramina?
the sacrospinous ligament
What is the function of the sacro-ischial ligaments?
they oppose the upward tilt of the sacral apex and resist the rotation of sacrum between the innominate bones
What ligaments are present at the second sternocostal or sternochondral joint?
the capsular ligament, anterior and posterior sternochondral radiate ligaments and the intra-articular ligament
Which of the sternocostal or sternochondral ligaments is unique to the second sternocostal or sternochondral joint?
the intra-articular ligament
What are the joint surfaces of the fifth - tenth interchondral joints?
the costal cartilages of the fifth - tenth ribs
What is the classification of the sixth through the ninth interchondral joints?
synovial (diarthrosis) arthrodia
What is the classification of the fifth - sixth or ninth - tenth interchondral joints?
fibrous (amphiarthrosis) syndesmosis
Which costal cartilages fail to form a joint at their sternal end?
the eleventh and twelfth costal cartilages
What points on the skull are used to measure the skull size?
the nasion, vertex, inion and gnathion
What points on the skull are used to measure cranial vault capacity?
the nasion, vertex, and inion
What constitutes the bony floor of the anterior cranial fossa?
orbital plates of frontal bone, crista galli & cribriform plate of ethmoid
What bony feature is prominent in teh median plane of the middle cranial fossa?
What are the parts of the sella turcica?
anterior clinoid processes, sphenoidal jugum, posterior clinoid processes, dorsum sella, & hypophyseal fossa of sphenoid bone
What is unique about the ophthalmic artery and veins?
unlike other artery-vein combinations they will not share the same opening;
the ophthalmic artery is in the optic canal, ophthalmic veins are in the superior orbital fissure
What will the foramen spinosum communicate with?
the middle cranial fossa and the infratemporal region
What are the contents of the foramen spinosum?
the nervus spinosus from the mandibular division of the trigeminal nerve and the middle meningeal artery
What cranial nerves are represented in the middle cranial fossa?
cranial nerve II (optic),
Va (ophthalmic division/ trigeminal),
Vb (maxillary division/ trigeminal),
Vc (mandibular division/ trigeminal),
VII (greater/superficial petrosal nerve of the facial)
and IX (lesser petrosal nerve of the glossopharyngeal)
What forms the roof of the posterior cranial fossa?
the tentorium cerebelli
What part of the central nerve system occupies the posterior cranial fossa?
the cerebellum, pons, and medulla oblongata
What bony feature is prominent in the median plane of the posterior cranial fossa?
the clivus or basilar part of the occipital bone
What is the third layer of the scalp associated with?
muscular component of the scalp
What is the fourth layer of the scalp?
loose connective tissue layer
What is the fifth layer of the scalp?
Which muscles lack any attachment to bone?
orbicularis oris, procerus, & risorius
What is the source of innervation for all muscles of facial expression?
facial nerve branches
Which divisions of the trigeminal nerve receive sensory information from the face?
all 3 divisions: ophthalmic nerve, maxillary nerve & mandibular nerve
What opening(s) are located along the superior wall of the orbit?
What are the contents of the optic canal?
optic nerve & ophthalmic artery
What is the name given to the medial wall of the orbit?
What opening(s) are located along the lateral wall of the orbit?
superior orbital fissure
What opening(s) are located along the inferior wall of the orbit?
inferior orbital fissure
What are the layers of the eyelid?
skin, orbicularis oculi muscle, tarsal plate/tarsus & palpebral conjunctiva
What are the names given to the modified sebaceous glands of the palpebra?
tarsal gland or Meibomian gland and ciliary gland
Sympathetic stimulation of the lacrimal gland will result in what events?
vasoconstriction of blood vessels, limited availability of water to secretory units, more viscous or thicker product formed in glandular lumen
Parasympathetic stimulation of targets in the lacrimal gland will result in what events?
vasodilatation of blood vessels, increased availability of water to secretory units, thinner or more watery product in lumen;
constriction of myoepithelial cells leading to release of product from secretory lumen into duct system
What are the names of the layers of the eyeball?
iris, ciliary body, choroid & pupil
What is the location of the anterior chamber of the eyeball?
between the cornea and iris
What is the location of the posterior chamber of the eyeball?
between the iris and lens
What is contained in the anterior chamber of the eyeball?
What is contained in the posterior chamber of the eyeball?
What is the name given to the chamber behind the lens?
What is the location of the vitreous chamber?
behind the lens, in front of the retina
What fills the vitreous chamber?
What are the common characteristics in origin and insertion of all rectus extraocular muscles?
they all originate from a common annular tendon in the orbit
they all insert into sclera in front of the coronal equator of the eyeball
What is the common characteristics regarding the insertion of both oblique extraocular muscles?
both insert onto sclera on the lateral margin of the eyeball behind the coronal equator
Which extraocular muscles insert behind the coronal equator of the eyeball?
superior oblique, inferior oblique
What is the source of innervation of the specific intrinsic eye muscles?
parasympathetic fibers from oculomotor nerve- ciliaris, sphincter pupillae
sympathetic fibers from internal carotid artery plexus- dilator pupillae
What is the name of the palpable posterior projection of the eminentia concha of the auricle?
Which branches of the external carotid artery supply the auricle?
occipital, posterior auricular, superficial temporal arteries... OPS
Skin lining the external acoustic meatus contains what modified sebaceous glands?
Vascularization of the external acoustic meatus is derived from which branch(es) of the external carotid artery?
posterior auricular artery, internal maxillary artery, superficial temporal artery... PIS
What muscle will the parotid gland duct/Stensen's duct penetrate?
What part of the oral cavity will the parotid gland duct/Stensen's duct open into?
the buccal vestibule
What tooth will the parotid gland duct/Stensen's duct open near?
the second maxillary molar
What vein is formed within the parotid gland?
the retromandibular vein
What are the branches of the facial nerve plexus formed within the parotid gland?
temporal, zygomatic, buccal, marginal mandibular and cervical branches
What branch of the facial nerve penetrates the parotid gland, but is not given off within it?
the chorda tympani nerve
Other than vascular effects, what will parasympathetic innervation cause in the parotid gland?
Stimulate myoepithelial cells to squeeze the glandular units and mediate release of saliva into the duct system
What are the contents of the infratemporal region?
medial & lateral pterygoid muscles, internal maxillary artery & branches, pterygoid venous plexus, internal maxillary vein, branches of the trigeminal & facial nerves & otic ganglion
What does the lateral/temporomandibular ligament represent?
a thickening of the fibrous capsule of the temporomandibular joint
What are the attachment sites of the sphenomandibular ligament?
the spine of the sphenoid bone to the lingula of the mandible
What muscles act to retract the mandible or pull the chin back?
What muscles act during the action of grinding on the temporomandibular joint?
ipsilateral temporalis, contralateral medial pterygoid and lateral pterygoid and both masseters
What openings are associated with the pterygopalatine region?
inferior orbital fissure, pterygomaxillary fissure, sphenopalatine foramen, and foramen rotundum
Which ganglion is located within the pterygopalatine region?
the sphenopalatine, pterygopalatine or Meckel's ganglion
What are the names of the larger pieces of cartilage forming the nose?
septal cartilage, lateral nasal cartilage and major alar cartilage
Which of the larger nasal cartilages lacks any attachment to bone?
the major alar cartilage
What is the name given to the junction between the skin adn the red region of the lip?
the vermilion border
What is the name given to the red region of the human lip?
What is the name given to the median depression of the upper lip?
What are the names given to the fatty deposits within the cheek?
corpus adiposum, Bichat's fat plug, buccal fat plug or suctorial fat pad of infants
What is the name given to the part of the mucous membrane of the lip or cheek attaching to the maxilla or to the mandible?
the gingiva proper
What forms the anterior boundary of the posterior triangle of the neck?
the posterior border of the sternocleidomastoideus
What forms the posterior boundary of the posterior triangle of the neck?
the anterior border of the trapezius
What forms the inferior boundary of the posterior triangle of the neck?
the middle third of the clavicle
What cutaneous or superficial branches arise from the cervical nerve plexus?
lesser occipital nerve (ventral primary ramus of C2)
greater auricular nerve (ventral primary rami of C2, C3)
transverse cervical nerve (ventral primary rami of C2, C3)
supraclavicular nerve (ventral primary rami of C3, C4)