Study Guide Questions- Exam 3 Flashcards Preview

Spinal Anatomy 2 PCC > Study Guide Questions- Exam 3 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Study Guide Questions- Exam 3 Deck (281):
0

Is cervical spondylolysis the result of congenital conditions, acquired conditions or an age-related conditions?

congenital conditions

1

What are the types/classifications of spondylolisthesis?

Type I spondylolisthesis (dysplastic spondylolisthesis, congenital spondylolisthesis) Type II spondylolisthesis (isthmic spondylolisthesis) Type III spondylolisthesis (degenerative spondylolisthesis) Type IV spondylolisthesis (traumatic spondylolisthesis) Type V spondylolisthesis (pathologic spondylolisthesis)

2

What gender bias, locational bias, and spinal canal dimensions are associated with type II spondylolisthesis?

Isthmic spondylolisthesis is common in men, located at the L5/S1 level and demonstrates an increase in sagittal diameter of the spinal canal

3

What is the gender bias, locational bias, and spinal canal dimension changes often associated with type III spondylolisthesis?

degenerative spondylolisthesis is more common in women, particularly at L4/L5, and demonstrates no change in sagittal diameter of the spinal canal

4

What causes type IV spondylolisthesis?

fracture of the neural arch components

5

Is there a gender, locational, or age bias associated with type IV spondylolisthesis?

no

6

What are the cause(s) associated with type V spondylolisthesis?

bone diseases such as Paget disease or osteogenesis imperfecta

7

What muscles may attach to the median sacral crest?

latissimus dorsi, iliocostalis lumborum, longissimus thoracis

8

What features may be identified along the intermediate sacral crest?

the mammillary process of S1 and the sacral cornu of S5

9

What features may be identified along the lateral sacral crest:

S1 transverse tubercle, sacral tuberosity of S2, transverse tubercles of S3, S4, and S5

10

What muscles may attach to the transverse processes of sacrum?

multifidis, iliocostalis lumborum

11

What feature does the anterior surface of the superior epiphyseal rim of S1 form?

the sacral promontory

12

The continuation of the anterior longitudinal ligament below S3 forms what ligament?

the anterior sacrococcygeal ligament

13

The continuation of the posterior longitudinal ligament below S3 forms what ligament?

the deep posterior sacrococcygeal ligament

14

What ligament is attached to the sacral hiatus?

the superficial posterior sacrococcygeal ligament

15

What joint classifications are typically present at sacrum?

fibrous (amphiarthrosis) syndesmosis, cartilaginous (amphiarthrosis) symphysis, and synovial (diarthrosis) arthrodia

16

What is the homolog for the posterior longitudinal ligament at S5?

deep posterior sacrococcygeal ligament

17

What is the homolog for the anterior longitudinal ligament at S5?

anterior sacrococcygeal ligament

18

What is the homolog for the ligamentum flavum at S5?

superficial posterior sacrococcygeal ligament

19

What is the direction of the coccygeal curve?

posterior, kyphotic

20

What is the major motion and range of motion for coccyx?

flexion- extension, 5-20 degrees

21

How many coccygeal nerves are present in the adult?

typically only one pair of coccygeal nerves remain in the adult

22

What forms the coccygeal nerve plexus?

S4, S5, and Co1 Nerves

23

What is the coccygeal glomus or coccygeal body?

an enlarged enscapsulated arteriovenous anastomosis located near the last segment of coccyx

24

What joint classifications are present for coccyx?

cartilaginous (amphiarthrosis) symphysis and fibrous (amphiarthrosis) syndesmosis

25

What forms the inferior boundary for the spinal canal?

the union of the superficial posterior and deep posterior sacrococcygeal ligaments

26

What does the suffix "ization" refer to

in the process of becoming like

27

What is/are the characteristic(s) of occipitalization of C1?

the atlas may be partially or completely fused to the occiput

28

What is another way of implying occipitalization of C1?

atlas assimilation

29

What is the incidence of occipitalization of C1?

0.1% to 0.8%

30

When do the centers of ossification for the odontoid process first appear?

during the last trimester in utero

31

What joint is formed between the odontoid process ossification centers and the centrum of C2?

the subdental synchondrosis

32

What is the classification of the joint formed between the C2 odontoid process and centrum?

amphiarthrosis synchondrosis

33

Ossification between the odontoid process and centrum joint of C2 first appears at what age?

4 years old

34

What is an os odontoideum?

a persistence beyond age 7 of the joint formed between the centrum and odontoid process centers of ossification

35

What is the name given to the condition in which the joint formed between the odontoid process and centrum of C2 persists beyond age 7?

os odontoideum

36

What is the name given to the joint between the odontoid process and centrum of C2 which is still evident beyond age 7?

persistent subdental synchondrosis

37

What is the name given to the joint formed between the tip of the dens and the odontoid process centers of ossification?

tip of the dens synchondrosis

38

At what age will the tip of the dens fuse with the odontoid process?

before age 12

39

If the joint formed between the tip of the dens and odontoid process centers of ossification persists beyond age 12, what is the condition called?

terminal ossicle

40

What is a basilar impression?

persistence of the nonunion of the basilar and condylar parts of the chondrocranium such that the cartilage deforms due to the weight of the brain

41

What is a basilar invagination?

the upper cervical spine appears to be invaginated into the skull on x-ray analysis

42

What is the incidence of rib-related changes following dorsalization of C7?

from one-half to two and one-half percent of the population [from 0.5 - 2.5% of the population]

43

Do patients typically present with symptoms specific for dorsalization of C7?

no, they are typically asymptomatic

44

What is the gender bias suggested in dorsalization of C7?

female

45

What alteration in C7 facet orientation may accompany dorsalization?

the superior articular facet of C7 may change from back, upward, and medial [BUM] to that of a typical thoracic facet... back, upward and lateral [BUL]; the inferior articular facet is unchanged

46

What percent of the population may demonstrate thoracic-like features at C7?

up to 46%

47

What rib-related changes may accompany cervicalization of T1?

the first rib may decrease in mean relative length or become absent

48

What is the incidence of cervicalization of T1 in the population?

up to 28% of the population

49

What is the incidence of lumbar ribs in the population?

over 7% of the population demonstrates lumbar ribs

50

What is characteristic of lumbarization of S1?

the failure of synostosis between S1 and S2, squaring of the vertebral body of S1 and flaring of the sacral ala

51

Which segment demonstrates the greatest morphological variation along the spine?

L5

52

What is the incidence of variation within the sacrococcygeal region in the population?

up to 14%

53

What is characteristic of sacralization of Co1?

the premature fusion of Co1 to the sacrum

54

What is the traditional time of appearance of the cervical curve said to be?

during the last trimester in utero

55

What is the time during which the "adult" cervical curve is said to appear?

within the first year after birth

56

What developmental events are indicated in the formation of the adult cervical curve?

centers for vision and equilibrium will appear in the brain; musculature attaching the skull, cervical region, and upper thorax together develops; the head is held upright; the intervertebral disc height becomes greater anterior than posterior

57

What is the name given to the integration of visual and motor pathways associated with holding the head erect?

the righting reflex

58

What is the time of appearance of the lumbar curve?

between 12 and 18 months after birth

59

What infant activities are associated with the development of the lumbar curve?

crawling and walking

60

What developmental events are indicated in the formation of the adult lumbar curve?

crawling will cause the abdomen to put tension on the lumbar region and pulls it forward; muscle development is promoted to compensate for the swayback of the lumbars; intervertebral disc height will become greater anterior compared to posterior; walking will further promote muscle and intervertebral disc development

61

What is the time of appearance of the lateral curves?

they appear after 6 years old

62

What is the relationship between curve direction and handedness?

a right handed person has a high probability for a right thoracic, left lumbar combination

63

What is the definition of lordosis?

a forward bending condition

64

What is the definition of kyphosis?

a humpback or hunchback condition

65

What is the definition of scoliosis?

a warped or crooked condition

66

What clinical examples of abnormal curvatures along the vertebral column were stressed in class?

military neck, humpback or hunchback, and swayback

67

What is military neck?

a decreased anterior curve in the cervical region, a straight neck

68

What are the curve classifications for military neck?

a kyphosis or hypolordotic curve

69

What are the curve classifications for humpback or hunchback?

a kyphosis or hyperkyphotic curve

70

What are the curve classifications for swayback?

a lordosis or hyperlordotic curve

71

What are the classifications of scoliosis according to the Scoliosis Research Society?

magnitude, location, direction, etiology, and structural/non-structural

72

What is the incidence of idiopathic scoliosis in the population?

1% to 4% of the population

73

Identify the curve direction, location, gender bias and incidence of infantile idiopathic scoliosis.

left thoracic, male, less than 1% incidence

74

Identify the curve direction, location, gender bias, and incidence of juvenile idiopathic scoliosis.

right thoracic, females over 6 years old, 12% - 21% incidence

75

The trapezius is innervated by what nerve?

the spinal accessory nerve

76

The latissimus dorsi is innervated by what nerve?

the thoracodorsal nerve

77

Splenius cervicis will attach to what locations on the spine?

lateral mass of C1 & posterior tubercle of transverse process on C1-C4

78

What is the insertion for the iliocostalis lumborum pars lumborum?

iliac crest of the innominate bone

79

Which subdivision of the iliocostalis muscle appears to have a reversal of origin- insertion?

iliocostalis lumborum pars lumborum

80

What osseous parts of the vertebral column serve as an origin to the iliocostalis thoracis?

none

81

Which subdivision of the iliocostalis primarily originates & inserts on ribs?

iliocostalis thoracis

82

What osseous parts of the vertebral column serve as an origin to the iliocostalis cervicis?

none

83

Which erector spinae muscle is attached to the accessory process?

longissimus thoracis

84

What is the insertion for the longissimus thoracis pars lumborum?

posterior superior iliac spine (PSIS)of the innominate bone

85

Which subdivision of the longissimus muscle appears to have a reversal of origin - insertion?

longissimus thoracis pars lumborum

86

Which erector spinae muscles attach to cervical articular processes?

longissimus cervicis & longissimus capitis

87

How many vertebrae can be attached to a single segment by transversospinalis muscle?

as many as nine vertebrae

88

What segment will represent the lowest attachment site for the semispinalis thoracis?

T12

89

What osseous parts of the vertebral column serve as an origin to the semispinalis capitis?

transverse tubercles of C7, T1 -T6 or T7 & articular processes of C4-C6

90

The semispinalis capitis and spinalis capitis may fuse to form what muscle?

biventer cervicis

91

Which transversospinalis muscle attaches to articular and mammillary processes along the spine?

multifidis

92

What osseous parts of the vertebral column serve as an origin to the multifidis cervicis?

articular process of C4-C7

93

Which subdivision of multifidis may demonstrate a reversal of origin-insertion?

multifidis lumborum

94

what is the proposed function of the suboccipital muscle group?

postural stabilizers of the atlanto-occipital and atlanto-axial joints

95

Based on the density of muscle spindles what is the proposed function of the interspinalis?

acts as a proprioceptive transducer in conjunction with intertrasnversarii to coordinate the smooth movement of the spine and to maintain appropriate posture

96

Which of the cervical intertransversarii is innervated by dorsal rami of cervical spinal nerves?

posterior medial belly, cervical intertransversarii

97

What is the origin of the medial belly of the lumbar intertransversarii?

accessory process of transverse process L1- L4 mammillary process of superior articular process L1-L4

98

Which of the lumbar intertransversarii is innervated by dorsal rami of lumbar spinal nerves?

medial belly, lumbar intertransversarii

99

Based on the density of muscle spindles what is the proposed function of the intertransversarii?

acts as a proprioceptive transducer in conjunction with interspinalis to coordinate the smooth movement of the spine and to maintain appropriate posture

100

What is the origin of the rectus capitis anterior?

lateral mass & costal element of the transverse process of C1

101

What is the insertion of the anterior scalene?

ridge and anterior scalene tubercle of the first rib

102

What is the insertion of the middle scalene?

between the tubercle and groove for the subclavian artery on the first rib

103

What is the insertion of the posterior scalene?

outer surface of second rib

104

What are the possible locations of bipolar neurons?

the nasal olfactory epithelium, the retina, the vestibular or Scarpa's ganglion, and the cochlear or spiral ganglion

105

What are the possible locations of pseudounipolar neurons?

any sensory ganglion other than those of the eighth cranial nerve

106

What are the examples of multipolar neurons?

stellate neurons, the motor neurons of the brain and spinal cord pyramidal neurons of the cerebral cortex projection neurons or Golgi type 1 Purkinje cells of the cerebellar cortex local circuit neurons or Golgi type 2 granule cells of the cerebral and cerebellar cortex and neurons of the motor ganglia

107

Where is the primary sensory neuron of a typical sensory pathway located?

in a sensory ganglion

108

Which projection from the primary sensory neuron conveys an impulse from a receptor ending to the perikaryon?

the peripheral sensory process

109

Which projection from the primary sensory neuron conveys an impulse from the perikaryon to the secondary sensory neuron?

the central sensory process

110

What is the morphology of most motor or efferent neurons associated with the peripheral nerve system?

multipolar

111

What is the generic location for primary motor neurons in the brain?

nucleus of origin

112

What is the generic location for primary motor neurons in the spinal cord?

ventral horn or lateral horn

113

What do chemoreceptors monitor?

hypoxia or decreased oxygen levels, hypercapnia or increased carbon dioxide levels and elevated hydrogen ions, an indication of circulating blood pH

114

What is the site or location for chemoreceptors?

a glomus or body

115

What are the types and examples of exteroceptors?

(a) general or cutaneous sense organs such as free nerve endings, encapsulated ending and epidermal endings (b) special sense receptors for olfaction, vision, hearing and taste

116

What are the examples of proprioceptors?

Golgi tendon organs, neuromuscular spindles, Pacinian corpuscles, inner ear receptors for equilibrium and specialized receptors in joints

117

What are the examples of epidermal nerve endings?

Palisade nerve endings, Merkel cell endings and Ruffini corpuscles or Ruffini nerve endings

118

What is the example of tactile corpuscles?

Meissner's corpuscles

119

Which type of encapsulated nerve ending is sensitive to vibration?

Iamellated corpuscles or Pacinian corpuscles

120

What is the example of the neurotendinous nerve ending?

Golgi tendon organs

121

Contrast the sensory ganglion with the motor ganglion

sensory ganglia contain primary sensory neuron cell bodies and lack synapses; motor ganglia contain secondary neuron cell bodies and always demonstrate synapses

122

Muscles derived from somites are innervated by which cranial nerves?

CN III or Oculomotor N CN IV or Trochlear N CN VI or Abducens N CN XII or Hypoglossal N

123

Muscles derived from the branchial or pharyngeal arches are innervated by which cranial nerves?

CN V or Trigeminal N CN VII or Facial N CN IX or Glossopharyngeal N CN X or Vagus N CN XI or Spinal Accessory N

124

What peripheral nerves contain visceral efferent pathways at their origin?

CN III or Oculomotor N CN VII or Facial N CN IX or Glossopharyngeal N CN X or Vagus N as well as Spinal Nerves T1-T12, L1, L2 and S2-S4

125

Identify the type of motor pathway associated with each type of muscle.

somatic and branchial motor pathways terminate on skeletal muscle autonomic/involuntary/visceral pathways terminate on smooth and cardiac muscle

126

What types of efferent neurons form nuclei of origin in the brain?

somatic neurons, branchial neurons and primary parasympathetic neurons

127

Will sympathetic efferent neurons be located in the brain?

no

128

What are the parts of a primary sensory neuron?

receptor ending, peripheral sensory process, pseudounipolar cell body, central sensory process and synaptic ending

129

What is the location of a secondary sensory neuron?

a nucleus of termination

130

What are the four classifications of afferent neurons?

somatic afferent, visceral afferent, special visceral afferent, and special sensory

131

What do somatic afferent monitor?

pain, temperature, light touch and proprioception

132

What do visceral afferent monitor?

baroreception, chemoreception, sensation from viscera

133

What do special visceral afferents monitor?

olfaction and taste

134

What do special sensory afferent monitor?

vision, hearing, equilibrium

135

Cranial nerve 1 is an example of which classification of sensory pathway?

special visceral afferent

136

What is the site for the detection of smell?

the olfactory mucosa of the nasal cavity

137

What is the morphological classification of the primary sensory neuron of the first cranial nerve?

bipolar neuron

138

What do central processes of the first cranial nerve bundle together to form?

fila olfactoria

139

What forms the traditional or classic first cranial nerve?

the olfactory bulb and olfactory tract

140

What is the exit site for the first cranial nerve?

cribriform plate of the ethmoid bone

141

Secondary afferent neuron cell bodies of the first cranial nerve are primarily located in what structure?

olfactory bulb

142

What is the location for synapse between primary and secondary afferent neurons of the first cranial nerve?

Olfactory glomerulus's

143

What is the name of the traditional secondary afferent neuron of the first cranial nerve?

mitral cell

144

Axons of secondary afferent neurons of the first cranial nerve form the ______.

Olfactory tract

145

Cranial nerve II is an example of which classification of sensory pathway?

special sensory

146

What is the function of the rod cell?

provide vision in dim light conditions

147

What is the function of the cone cell?

provide vision in bright light conditions and mediate color vision

148

What is the most numerous photoreceptor cell?

rod cell

149

What is the primary afferent neuron of the second cranial nerve?

bipolar cell

150

What is the secondary sensory neuron of the second cranial nerve?

ganglion cell

151

In what location will the axons of the secondary afferent neuron leave the eyeball?

optic disc, papilla of the optic nerve, optic nerve head or blind spot of the retina

152

What forms the optic nerve?

axons of ganglion cells

153

What is the exit site for the second cranial nerve?

optic canal of the sphenoid bone

154

What occurs at the optic chiasma?

part of the optic nerve decussates

155

What part of the visual pathway connects the optic chiasma to the brain?

the optic tract

156

What is the location for tertiary neurons of the visual pathway?

lateral geniculate nucleus

157

Axons from the lateral geniculate nucleus will synapse in what specific location?

primary visual cortex, calcarine sulcus of the occipital lobe of the cerebrum

158

At its apparent origin cranial nerve III conveys which classifications of neural pathways?

somatic efferent pathway and visceral efferent pathway

159

What is the somatic efferent nucleus of origin for the third cranial nerve?

oculomotor nuclear complex

160

Which extrinsic muscle/s of the eye is/are innervated by the third cranial nerve?

medial rectus, inferior rectus, superior recuts and inferior oblique

161

Which non-ocular muscle is innervated by the third cranial nerve?

levator palpebrae superioris muscle of the eyelid

162

What is the location of the apparent origin of the third cranial nerve?

the midbrain

163

From which cranial fossa will the third cranial nerve exit the cranial vault?

middle cranial fossa

164

What is the exit from the cranial vault for the third cranial nerve?

superior orbital fissure; sphenoid bone

165

Visceral efferent fibers conveyed in the third cranial nerve originate from which nucleus?

accessory oculomotor nucleus of Edinger/Westphal

166

What is the location of synapse for preganglionic parasympathetic efferent fibers of the third cranial nerve?

ciliary ganglion

167

Postganglionic parasympathetic efferent fibers of the third cranial nerve are carried in which nerve?

short ciliary nerve

168

Postganglionic parasympathetic efferent fibers of the third cranial nerve synapse in what targets?

sphincter pupillae & ciliaris intrinsic eye muscles

169

Peripheral sensory processes conveyed in the third cranial nerve will communicate with which cranial nerve branch?

ophthalmic division of trigeminal

170

Peripheral sensory processes conveyed in the thirdcranial nerve travel to pseudounipolar sensory neuron cell bodies located in which ganglion?

Gasserian ganglion, semilunar ganglion, or trigeminal ganglion

171

Typically, primary afferent neurons of the third cranial nerve located in the semilunar ganglion, Gaserian ganglion or trigeminal ganglion will synapse in what nucleus?

spinal trigeminal nucleus

172

In the somatic afferent pathway of cranial nerve III, neurons within the mesencephalic nucleus may synapse at what locations?

oculomotor nuclear complex or spinal trigeminal nucleus

173

At its apparent origin cranial nerve IV conveys which classification of neural pathways?

somatic efferent pathway

174

What is the location for multipolar somatic efferent neurons of the fourth cranial nerve?

trochlear motor nucleus

175

Somatic efferent fibers from the left nucleus of the fourth cranial nerve will have an apparent origin from which side?

right side

176

What are the two unique features of the fourth cranial nerve?

it is the only cranial with an apparent origin from the dorsal surface of the brain it is the only cranial efferent nerve to decussate within the midbrain from its nucleus

177

The right fourth cranial nerve will innervate which side target muscle?

the right side muscle

178

The fourth cranial nerve exits the cranial vault by way of which opening?

superior orbital fissure; sphenoid bone

179

Somatic efferent fibers from the fourth cranial nerve will innervate which muscle(s)?

superior oblique extrinsic muscle of the eye

180

Which of the cranial nuclei of termination contain primary afferent neurons?

mesencephalic nucleus of the trigeminal nerve

181

In the somatic afferent pathway of cranial nerve IV, neurons within the mesencephalic nucleus may synapse at what locations?

trochlear motor nucleus or spinal trigeminal nucleus

182

The fifth cranial nerve is functionally referred to as the ________.

great sensory nerve of the face

183

The fifth cranial nerve arises from what part of the brain?

the pons

184

Identify each branch of the fifth cranial nerve arising from its' ganglion.

ophthalmic nerve, maxillary nerve, mandibular nerve

185

What is the exit site from the cranial vault for each division of the fifth cranial nerve?

ophthalmic nerve - superior orbital fissure maxillary nerve - foramen rotundum mandibular nerve - foramen ovale

186

What location will each branch of the fifth cranial nerve pass into upon exit from the cranial vault?

ophthalmic nerve - orbit maxillary nerve - pterygopalatine region mandibular nerve - infratemporal region

187

Central sensory processes carried in the fifth cranial nerve synapse with secondary sensory neuron cell bodies in what location?

mainly in the principal sensory nucleus; some in the trigeminal spinal nucleus

188

Branchial efferent fibers arise from multipolar neurons in what nucleus?

trigeminal motor nucleus

189

What muscles are innervated by branchial efferent fibers conveyed in the fifth cranial nerve?

temporalis, masseter, medial pterygoid, lateral pterygoid, mylohyoid, anterior belly of the digastric, tensor tympani and tensor veli palatini

190

What is the classification of the mandibular division of the cranial nerve V based on function?

mixed cranial nerve

191

At its apparent origin cranial nerve VI conveys hich classification of neural pathways?

somatic efferent pathway

192

What is the name of the sixth cranial nerve?

abducent nerve or abducens nerve

193

What is the site of the apparent origin of the sixth cranial nerve from the brain?

the pons

194

The sixth cranial nerve exits the middle cranial fossa via what opening?

superior orbital fissure of the sphenoid bone

195

The sixth cranial nerve will innervate what target organ(s)?

lateral rectus extrinsic muscle of the eye

196

Peripheral sensory processes conveyed in the sixth cranial nerve will communicate with which cranial nerve branch?

ophthalmic division of trigeminal

197

In the somatic afferent pathway of cranial nerve VI, neurons within the mesencephalic nucleus may synapse at what locations?

abducent or abducens motor nucleus or spinal trigeminal nucleus

198

Because of its function, the seventh cranial nerve is often called the ________.

great motor nerve of the face

199

What classifications of fibers are conveyed at the apparent origin of the seventh cranial nerve?

branchial efferent, visceral efferent, somatic afferent, special sensory

200

What is the name of the location for multipolar branchial efferent neurons of cranial nerve VII?

facial motor nucleus

201

What is the opening through which the seventh cranial nerve exits the cranial vault?

internal acoustic meatus of the temporal bone

202

What is the name of the afferent ganglion for the seventh cranial nerve?

geniculate ganglion, genicular ganglion

203

Most of the seventh cranial nerve will exit the skull via what opening?

the stylomastoid foramen

204

Into what region of the head will the stylomastoid foramen open?

the parotid region

205

Branchial efferent fibers carried in the seventh cranial nerve will innervate what muscles?

muscles of facial expression, muscles of the scalp and auricle, the buccinator, platysma, stapedius, stylohyoid, and posterior belly of the digastric

206

Which visceral efferent pathway si conveyed int he seventh cranial nerve?

a parasympathetic motor pathway

207

What will the parasympathetic efferent pathways of the sevent cranial nerve supply?

the lacrimal, submandibular, sublingual, lingual and mucosal glands

208

Visceral efferent fibers conveyed in the seventh cranial nerve originate from which of the nucleus?

superior salivatory nucleus

209

Preganglionic visceral efferent fibers of cranial nerve VII will exit the pons in what nerve?

nervus intermedius, nerve of Wrisberg, sensory root of facial nerve

210

Which immediate branch of the seventh cranial nerve will convey preganglionic parasympathetic efferent fibers to the lacrimal gland?

greater petrosal or greater superficial petrosal nerve

211

Which branch of the seventh cranial nerve will convey preganglionic parasympathetic fibers into the pterygopalatine ganglion?

vidian nerve or nerve of the pterygoid canal

212

The continuation of the great petrosal nerve exits the middle cranial fossa by what opening?

vidian canal or pterygoid canal of the sphenoid bone

213

The vidian canal opens into what region of the head?

the pterygopalatine region, sphenopalatine region

214

What are the names of the ganglion of synapse in the efferent pathway to the lacrimal gland?

pterygopalatine ganglion, sphenopalatine ganglion, Meckel's ganglion

215

Postganglionic parasympathetic efferent fibers from the pterygopalatine, sphenopalatine or Meckel's ganglion will become incorporated in which cranial nerve branch?

maxillary nerve of the trigeminal

216

The maxillary division of the cranial nerve V exits the pterygopalatine region via what opening?

the inferior orbital fissure

217

What bones converge to form the inferior orbital fissure?

sphenoid, maxillary, palatine, and zygomatic

218

The parasympathetic pathway to the lacrimal gland will involve branches from which cranial nerves?

facial and trigeminal

219

What immediate branch of the maxillary nerve will convey postganglionic parasympathetic efferent fibers to the lacrimal gland?

zygomatic nerve

220

Which branch of the zygomatic nerve will convey postganglionic parasympathetic efferent fibers to the lacrimal gland?

zygomaticotemporal nerve

221

The zygomaticotemporal nerve will convey postganglionic parasympathetic efferent fibers to the lacrimal gland through a communication with which branch of the fifth cranial nerve?

ophthalmic nerve

222

Which ophthalmic nerve branch will contain postganglionic parasympathetic efferent fibers?

lacrimal nerve

223

Postganglionic parasympathetic efferent fibers from the ophthalmic nerve will innervate which gland?

lacrimal gland

224

What is the nucleus of origin for the preganglionic parasympathetic fibers carried in the seventh cranial nerve for the submandibular and sublingual glands?

superior salivatory nucleus

225

Preganglionic parasympathetic efferent fibers from the seventh cranial nerve to the submandibular and sublingual glands will exit the pons in what nerve?

nervus intermedius, nerve of Wrisberg, sensory root of facial nerve

226

Which immediate branch of the seventh cranial nerve will convey preganglionic prarasympathetic efferent fibers to the submandibular and sublingual glands?

chorda tympani nerve

227

The chorda tympani nerve exits the temporal bone via which opening?

the petrotympanic fissure of the temporal bone

228

The petrotympanic fissure will communicate between what two locations?

the middle cranial fossa and the infratemporal region

229

The lingual nerve is a branch of which nerve?

the mandibular division of the trigeminal nerve

230

Which branch of the mandibular division of the trigeminal will convey preganglionic parasympathetic efferent fibers to the submandibular and sublingual glands?

the lingual nerve

232

What are the specialized receptor cells for hearing called?

hair cells

233

Receptor cells associated with hearing are located in what structure?

the organ of Corti in the cochlear duct or scala media

234

What is the unique feature of receptor cells associated with hearing?

stereocilia

235

Peripheral sensory processes associated with hearing arise from what neurons?

type 1 bipolar neurons

236

What is the location of the primary afferent neuron associated with hearing?

the spiral ganglion or cochlear ganglion

237

Central sensory processes from bipolar sensory neurons located in the spiral ganglion aggregate together to form what nerve?

the cochlear nerve

238

Central sensory processes of primary afferent neurons associated with hearing have an apparent origin from what part of the brain?

the pons

239

Central sensory processes of primary afferent neurons associated with hearing will terminate on secondary afferent neurons in what location?

the cochlear nuclei

240

What is the name of the ninth cranial nerve?

glossopharyngeal nerve

241

The ninth cranial has an apparent origin from what part of the brain?

the medulla oblongata

242

The ninth cranial nerve exits which cranial fossa via what opening?

posterior cranial fossa; jugular foramen

243

What is the visceral efferent nucleus of origin for the ninth cranial nerve?

inferior salivatory nucleus

244

Preganglionic parasympathetic efferent fibers are observed in what primary branch of the ninth cranial nerve?

tympanic nerve or nerve of Jacobson

245

The tympanic nerve arises from what part of the ninth cranial nerve?

the inferior glossopharyngeal ganglion or petrosal ganglion

246

Within the temporal bone, preganglionic parasympathetic efferent fibers of the ninth cranial nerve will ultimately form what nerve?

the lesser (superficial) petrosal nerve

247

The lesser (superficial) petrosal nerve will exit which cranial fossa via what opening(s)?

middle cranial fossa; foramen ovale, the innominate canaliculus of Arnold, or the sphenopetrosal suture

248

The lesser (superficial) petrosal nerve will emerge from the middle cranial fossa to enter what region of the head?

the infratemporal region

249

Preganglionic parasympathetic efferent fibers from the ninth cranial nerve will synapse in which ganglion?

otic ganglion or Arnold's ganglion

250

Postganglionic parasympathetic efferent fibers from the otic or Arnold's ganglion will communicate with what other cranial nerve branch?

the auriculotemporal branch of the mandibular division of the trigeminal

251

The parasympathetic pathway from the ninth cranial nerve will innervate what target?

parotid gland

252

Which cranial nerve pathway will leave the skull to enter the neck, leave the neck to enter the temporal bone, leave the temporal bone to enter the middle cranial fossa and finally leave the middle cranial fossa to enter the infratemporal region?

glossopharyngeal nerve pathway to the parotid gland

253

What cranial nerves are involved int he parasympathetic pathway to the parotid gland?

glossopharyngeal nerve and trigeminal nerve

254

Preganglionic parasympathetic efferent fibers will synapse in which ganglion along the pathway to the sublingual gland?

submandibular ganglion

255

Peripheral sensory processes from receptors around the ear and mastoid region are conveyed to the seventh cranial nerve from what other cranial nerve?

vagus

256

Peripheral sensory processes from receptors around the ear and mastoid region are conveyed in the seventh cranial nerve to what ganglion?

genicular ganglion or geniculate ganglion

257

Central sensory processes from pseudounipolar neurons in the geniculate ganglion enter the pons in what nerve?

nervus intermedius, nerve of Wrisberg, sensory root of the facial nerve

258

What is the nucleus of termination for central sensory processes from pseudounipolar neurons in the geniculate ganglion associated with information from the mastoid region and auricle?

the spinal trigeminal nucleus

259

In general, somatic afferent pathways typically terminate on which nucleus?

the spinal trigeminal nucleus

260

What is the classification of sensory fibers associated with taste?

special visceral afferent fibers

261

Peripheral sensory processes from taste receptors located on the anterior two thirds of the tongue are conveyed in which branch of the fifth cranial nerve?

lingual nerve, mandibular divison

262

Peripheral sensory processes from taste receptors located on the anterior two thirds of the tongue are conveyed in which branch of the seventh cranial nerve?

chorda tympani

263

Peripheral sensory processes from taste receptors located on the anterior two thirds of the tongue conveyed in the seventh cranial nerve will enter the skull in what opening?

petrotympanic fissure

264

Peripheral sensory processes from taste receptors located on the anterior two thirds of the tongue are conveyed in the seventh cranial nerve to what ganglion?

genicular ganglion or geniculate ganglion

265

Central sensory processes from pseudounipolar neurons associated with taste in the geniculate ganglion enters the pons in what nerve?

nervus intermedius, nerve of Wrisberg, sensory root of the facial nerve

266

What is the nucleus of termination for central sensory processes from pseudounipolar neurons in the geniculate ganglion which are associated with taste?

gustatory nucleus of the nucleus solitarius

267

What type of fiber is present in the eighty cranial nerve?

special sensory

268

What is the name given to the osseous spaces of the temporal bone associated with equilibrium and hearing?

bony labyrinth

269

What fluid separates the membranous labyrinth from the bony labyrinth?

perilymph

270

What fluid is present within the membranous labyrinth?

endolymph

271

What is the name given to spiral appearance of the organ for hearing?

cochlea

272

What makes up the vestibular apparatus?

the saccule, the utricle, and the semicircular ducts

273

How is sound or position converted into a neural impulse?

endolymph is displaced and alters the membrane of a specialized receptor cell

274

what are the specialized receptor cells for equilibrium called?

hair cells

275

In what elevations of each part of the vestibular apparatus will receptor cells be identified?

the macula of the saccule, the macula of the utricle, and the crista ampullaris of the ampullae of the semicircular ducts

276

What is unique to the receptor cells associated with equilibrium?

stereocilia and a single kinocilium

277

Peripheral sensory processes associated with equilibrium arise from what neurons?

bipolar neurons

278

What is the location of the primary afferent neuron associated with equilibrium?

Scarpa's ganglion or the vestibular ganglion

279

Central sensory processes from bipolar sensory neurons located in Scarpa's ganglion aggregate together to form what nerve?

the vestibular nerve

280

Central sensory processes of primary afferent neurons associated with equilibrium will enter what part of the brain?

the pons

281

Central sensory processes of primary afferent neurons associated with equilibrium will terminate on secondary afferent neurons in what location?

the vestibular nuclear complex