Study Guide Questions- Exam 3 Flashcards Preview

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Is cervical spondylolysis the result of congenital conditions, acquired conditions or an age-related conditions?

congenital conditions

1

What are the types/classifications of spondylolisthesis?

Type I spondylolisthesis (dysplastic spondylolisthesis, congenital spondylolisthesis) Type II spondylolisthesis (isthmic spondylolisthesis) Type III spondylolisthesis (degenerative spondylolisthesis) Type IV spondylolisthesis (traumatic spondylolisthesis) Type V spondylolisthesis (pathologic spondylolisthesis)

2

What gender bias, locational bias, and spinal canal dimensions are associated with type II spondylolisthesis?

Isthmic spondylolisthesis is common in men, located at the L5/S1 level and demonstrates an increase in sagittal diameter of the spinal canal

3

What is the gender bias, locational bias, and spinal canal dimension changes often associated with type III spondylolisthesis?

degenerative spondylolisthesis is more common in women, particularly at L4/L5, and demonstrates no change in sagittal diameter of the spinal canal

4

What causes type IV spondylolisthesis?

fracture of the neural arch components

5

Is there a gender, locational, or age bias associated with type IV spondylolisthesis?

no

6

What are the cause(s) associated with type V spondylolisthesis?

bone diseases such as Paget disease or osteogenesis imperfecta

7

What muscles may attach to the median sacral crest?

latissimus dorsi, iliocostalis lumborum, longissimus thoracis

8

What features may be identified along the intermediate sacral crest?

the mammillary process of S1 and the sacral cornu of S5

9

What features may be identified along the lateral sacral crest:

S1 transverse tubercle, sacral tuberosity of S2, transverse tubercles of S3, S4, and S5

10

What muscles may attach to the transverse processes of sacrum?

multifidis, iliocostalis lumborum

11

What feature does the anterior surface of the superior epiphyseal rim of S1 form?

the sacral promontory

12

The continuation of the anterior longitudinal ligament below S3 forms what ligament?

the anterior sacrococcygeal ligament

13

The continuation of the posterior longitudinal ligament below S3 forms what ligament?

the deep posterior sacrococcygeal ligament

14

What ligament is attached to the sacral hiatus?

the superficial posterior sacrococcygeal ligament

15

What joint classifications are typically present at sacrum?

fibrous (amphiarthrosis) syndesmosis, cartilaginous (amphiarthrosis) symphysis, and synovial (diarthrosis) arthrodia

16

What is the homolog for the posterior longitudinal ligament at S5?

deep posterior sacrococcygeal ligament

17

What is the homolog for the anterior longitudinal ligament at S5?

anterior sacrococcygeal ligament

18

What is the homolog for the ligamentum flavum at S5?

superficial posterior sacrococcygeal ligament

19

What is the direction of the coccygeal curve?

posterior, kyphotic

20

What is the major motion and range of motion for coccyx?

flexion- extension, 5-20 degrees

21

How many coccygeal nerves are present in the adult?

typically only one pair of coccygeal nerves remain in the adult

22

What forms the coccygeal nerve plexus?

S4, S5, and Co1 Nerves

23

What is the coccygeal glomus or coccygeal body?

an enlarged enscapsulated arteriovenous anastomosis located near the last segment of coccyx

24

What joint classifications are present for coccyx?

cartilaginous (amphiarthrosis) symphysis and fibrous (amphiarthrosis) syndesmosis

25

What forms the inferior boundary for the spinal canal?

the union of the superficial posterior and deep posterior sacrococcygeal ligaments

26

What does the suffix "ization" refer to

in the process of becoming like

27

What is/are the characteristic(s) of occipitalization of C1?

the atlas may be partially or completely fused to the occiput

28

What is another way of implying occipitalization of C1?

atlas assimilation

29

What is the incidence of occipitalization of C1?

0.1% to 0.8%