Is cervical spondylolysis the result of congenital conditions, acquired conditions or an age-related conditions?
What are the types/classifications of spondylolisthesis?
Type I spondylolisthesis (dysplastic spondylolisthesis, congenital spondylolisthesis) Type II spondylolisthesis (isthmic spondylolisthesis) Type III spondylolisthesis (degenerative spondylolisthesis) Type IV spondylolisthesis (traumatic spondylolisthesis) Type V spondylolisthesis (pathologic spondylolisthesis)
What gender bias, locational bias, and spinal canal dimensions are associated with type II spondylolisthesis?
Isthmic spondylolisthesis is common in men, located at the L5/S1 level and demonstrates an increase in sagittal diameter of the spinal canal
What is the gender bias, locational bias, and spinal canal dimension changes often associated with type III spondylolisthesis?
degenerative spondylolisthesis is more common in women, particularly at L4/L5, and demonstrates no change in sagittal diameter of the spinal canal
What causes type IV spondylolisthesis?
fracture of the neural arch components
Is there a gender, locational, or age bias associated with type IV spondylolisthesis?
What are the cause(s) associated with type V spondylolisthesis?
bone diseases such as Paget disease or osteogenesis imperfecta
What muscles may attach to the median sacral crest?
latissimus dorsi, iliocostalis lumborum, longissimus thoracis
What features may be identified along the intermediate sacral crest?
the mammillary process of S1 and the sacral cornu of S5
What features may be identified along the lateral sacral crest:
S1 transverse tubercle, sacral tuberosity of S2, transverse tubercles of S3, S4, and S5
What muscles may attach to the transverse processes of sacrum?
multifidis, iliocostalis lumborum
What feature does the anterior surface of the superior epiphyseal rim of S1 form?
the sacral promontory
The continuation of the anterior longitudinal ligament below S3 forms what ligament?
the anterior sacrococcygeal ligament
The continuation of the posterior longitudinal ligament below S3 forms what ligament?
the deep posterior sacrococcygeal ligament
What ligament is attached to the sacral hiatus?
the superficial posterior sacrococcygeal ligament
What joint classifications are typically present at sacrum?
fibrous (amphiarthrosis) syndesmosis, cartilaginous (amphiarthrosis) symphysis, and synovial (diarthrosis) arthrodia
What is the homolog for the posterior longitudinal ligament at S5?
deep posterior sacrococcygeal ligament
What is the homolog for the anterior longitudinal ligament at S5?
anterior sacrococcygeal ligament
What is the homolog for the ligamentum flavum at S5?
superficial posterior sacrococcygeal ligament
What is the direction of the coccygeal curve?
What is the major motion and range of motion for coccyx?
flexion- extension, 5-20 degrees
How many coccygeal nerves are present in the adult?
typically only one pair of coccygeal nerves remain in the adult
What forms the coccygeal nerve plexus?
S4, S5, and Co1 Nerves
What is the coccygeal glomus or coccygeal body?
an enlarged enscapsulated arteriovenous anastomosis located near the last segment of coccyx
What joint classifications are present for coccyx?
cartilaginous (amphiarthrosis) symphysis and fibrous (amphiarthrosis) syndesmosis
What forms the inferior boundary for the spinal canal?
the union of the superficial posterior and deep posterior sacrococcygeal ligaments
What does the suffix "ization" refer to
in the process of becoming like
What is/are the characteristic(s) of occipitalization of C1?
the atlas may be partially or completely fused to the occiput
What is another way of implying occipitalization of C1?
What is the incidence of occipitalization of C1?
0.1% to 0.8%