The Head Flashcards Preview

Spinal Anatomy Exam 3 > The Head > Flashcards

Flashcards in The Head Deck (72):
1

Excluding the auditory ossicles, how many bones form the skull?

22 bones

2

How many bones form the neurocranium?

8 bones

3

What bones form the neurocranium?

frontal, parietal, occipital, temporal, sphenoid, and ethmoid

4

How many bones form the facial skeleton?

14 bones

5

What bones form the facial skeleton?

mandible, vomer, nasal, maxilla, lacrimal, inferior nasal concha, palatine, and zygomatic

6

What are the four subclassifications of synarthrosis joints based on Latin groupings?

suture, gomphosis, schindylesis and syndesmosis

7

What were the five types of suture based on Latin groupings?

serrate, denticulate, limbous, squamos, and harmonia

8

What are the characteristics of sutura vera (true sutures)?

sutures demonstrating interlocking of the adjacent bone surfaces; typically formed by intramembranous ossification

9

What are the characterisitics of sutura notha (false sutures)?

sutures lacking interlocking of adjacent bone surfaces; typically formed by endochondral ossification

10

What were the classifications of sutura vera (true sutures) based on Latin groupings?

serrate, denticulate, and limbous

11

What were the classifications of sutura notha (false sutures) based on Latin groupings?

squamos and harmonia

12

What are the typical examples of the plane suture or harmonia suture?

cruciate suture made up of the intermaxillary, interpalatine, and palatomaxillary sutures

13

What are the examples of the schindylesis type of suture?

sphenoid-ethmoid-vomer articulation, the palatine-maxilla-vomer articulation

14

What are the examples of the gomphosis joint?

maxilla-root of tooth; mandible-root of tooth

15

What are the five views of the skull called?

norma verticalis, norma frontalis, norma occipitalis, norma lateralis, norma basalis

16

What is the diamond shaped remnant of developing membrane bone at the intersection of the frontal bone with both parietal bones?

the anterior fontanelle

17

What is the posterior fontanelle?

the diamond shaped remnant of developing membrane bone at the intersection of the occipital bone with both parietal bones

18

What is the diamond shaped remnant of developing membrane bone at the intersection of the occipital bone with both parietal bones?

the posterior fontanelle

19

What is the name given to the outline of the nasal cavity at the front of the skull?

piriform aperture

20

What is the name given to the alveolar jugum of the canine tooth in the maxilla?

canine eminence

21

What forms a bullet-like chin?

a large mental protuberance

22

What forms an indented chin?

well developed bilateral mental tubercles and a slight mental protuberance

23

What is the tip of the external occipital protuberance called?

the inion

24

What bones form the pterion?

parietal, temporal, sphenoid, and frontal bones

25

What points on the skull are used to measure skull size?

the nasion, vertex, inion, and gnathion

26

What points on the skull are used to measure cranial vault capacity?

the nasion, vertex, and inion

27

The olfactory nerve exits the cranial vault via what opening?

cribriform plate of the ethmoid bone

28

What passes through the foramen cecum?

an emissary vein

29

What is the anterior boundary of the middle cranial fossa?

lesser wings, anterior clinoid processes and spehnoidal jugum of sphenoid bone

30

What are the parts of the sella turcica?

anterior clinoid processes, sphenoidal jugum, posterior clinoid processes, dorsum sella, and hypophysial fossa of sphenoid bone

31

What neuronal structure is located in front of the hypophysis cerebri or pituitary gland?

optic chiasmata

32

What are the contents of the optic canal?

the optic nerve and opthalmic artery

33

What are the contents of the superior orbital fissure?

the opthalmic veins, the oculomotor nerve, the trochlear nerve, the opthalmic division of the trigeminal nerve, and the abducent nerve

34

Which single opening will allow the exit of the greatest number of cranial nerves?

the superior orbital fissure

35

What are the contents of the foramen rotundum?

the maxillary division of the trigeminal nerve (cranial nerve Vb)

36

What will the foramen ovale communicate with?

the middle cranial fossa and the infratemporal region

37

What are the contents of the foramen ovale?

the mandibular division of the trigeminal nerve (Vc) and the lesser petrosal branch of the glossopharyngeal nerve

38

What will the foramen spinosum communicate with?

the middle cranial fossa and the infratemporal region

39

What are the contents of the foramen spinosum?

the nervus spinosus from the mandibular division of the trigeminal nerve and the middle meningeal artery

40

What will the foramen lacerum communicate with in the living person?

it crosses between parts of the middle cranial fossa; it is not a major exit from the skull as would be suggested by the dry skull

41

What are the contents of the foramen lacerum?

the internal carotid artery, the carotid sympathetic nerve plexus, and a venous plexus

42

What are the contents of the hiatus for the greater (superficial) petrosal nerve?

the greater (superficial) petrosal nerve, a branch of the facial nerve

43

What will the vidian canal/pterygoid canal communicate with?

the middle cranial fossa and the pterygopalatine fossa

44

What opening allows a branch of cranial nerve VII to enter the pterygopalatine fossa from the middle cranial fossa?

the vidian canal/pterygoid canal

45

What are the contents of the hiatus for the lesser petrosal nerve?

the lesser petrosal nerve, a branch of the tympanic plexus from the glossopharyngeal nerve

46

How will the lesser petrosal nerve typically exit the middle cranial fossa?

the foramen ovale

47

What will the foramen ovale communicate with?

the middle cranial fossa and infratemporal region

48

What forms the roof of the posterior cranial fossa?

the tentorium cerebelli

49

What part of the cerebrum occupies the posterior cranial fossa?

none; the tentorium cerebelli seperates the cerebrum into a space above the posterior cranial fossa

50

What part of the central nerve system occupies the posterior cranial fossa?

the cerebellum, pons, and medulla oblongata

51

What are the contents of the internal acoustic meatus?

cranial nerves VII (facial nerve) and VIII (vestibulocochlear/auditory nerve), the nervus intermedius/nerve of Wrisberg/sensory root of VII and the motor root of VII, the vestibular and cochlear roots of VIII and the internal auditory/internal labryinthine artery and vein

52

What are the contents of the jugular foramen?

the jugular bulb, the inferior petrosal sius, the tympanic body/tympanic glomus of jugular body/jugular glomus, cranial nerves IX (glossopharyngeal), X (vagus) and XI (spinal accessory)

53

What can the five layers of the scalp spell?

Skin, Connective tissue, Aponeurosis, Loose connective tissue, Periosteum.... SCALP

54

What are the principal sources of blood to the scalp?

Internal carotid and external carotid artery branches

55

Which divisions of the trigeminal nerve receive sensory information from the scalp?

all 3 divisions: opthalmic nerve, maxillary nerve, and mandibular nerve

56

Which ventral rami nerve(s) and cord levels of origin supply the scalp?

greater auricular nerve - C2, C3 ventral rami branches; lesser occipital nerve - C2 (C3) ventral rami branches

57

Which dorsal ramus nerve branch (name and cord level of origin) supplies the scalp?

greater occipital nerve - C2, C3 communicating ramus

58

Which muscles lack any attachment to bone?

Orbicularis oris, procerus, and risorius

59

What type of motor fibers to skeletal muscle are given off by the facial nerve?

Branchial efferent (BE)

60

Most of the seventh cranial nerve will exit the skull via what opening?

the stylomastoid foramen

61

Which divisions of the trigeminal nerve receive sensory information from the face?

all 3 divisions: opthalmic nerve, maxillary nerve, and mandibular nerve

62

The optic canal is located along which wall of the orbit?

superior wall of the orbit

63

What are the contents of he optic canal?

optic nerve and opthalmic artery

64

What are the openings along the medial wall of the orbit?

anterior ethmoid and posterior ethmoid foramina

65

What is the name given to the medial wall of the orbit?

lamina papyracea

66

The superior orbital fissure is located along which wall of the orbit?

lateral wall of the orbit

67

What are the contents of the superior orbital fissure?

oculomotor, trochlear, and abducent/abducens cranial nerves, opthalmic division of the trigeminal cranial nerve, and opthalmic veins

68

What opening(s) is(are) located along the inferior wall of the orbit?

inferior orbital fissure

69

What is contained in the inferior orbital fissure?

maxillary division of the trigeminal nerve

70

Identify the opening(s) found along each wall of the orbit.

superior wall: optic canal
Medial wall: anterior ethmoid and posterior ethmoid foramina
Lateral wall: superior orbital fissure
Inferior wall: inferior orbital fissure

71

Which cranial nerves are involved in the Visceral Efferent (VE) parasympathetic pathway to the lacrimal gland?

facial and trigeminal (maxillary and opthalmic divisions/branches)

72

Parasympathetric stimulation of blood vessels in the lacrimal gland will result in what events?

vasodilation of blood vessels, increased availability of water to secretory units, thinner or more watery product in lumen