Week 1 - Cells & tissues Flashcards Preview

Spring 2013 / Anatomy 2 > Week 1 - Cells & tissues > Flashcards

Flashcards in Week 1 - Cells & tissues Deck (76):
1

what are the 3 major parts of cell?

1. plasma membrane
2. cytoplasm
3. nucleus

2

what are the 2 major roles of plasma membrane?

1. separates internal cellular components from external environment
2. regulates movement of substances into and out of cell

3

fluid mosaic model

describes structure of plasma membrane

4

membrane lipids include what 3 parts and describe their characteristics?

1. phospholipids (form lipid bilayer)
2. cholesterol (straighten membrane)
3. gycolipids (performs functions on membrane's outer surface)

5

what are the major components of plasma membrane?

lipids and proteins

6

membrane proteins include?

1. integral proteins (primarily transmembrane protein, ex. glycoproteins) and lipid-linked proteins
2. peripheral proteins (located on outer surfaces of phospholipid bilayer, ex. glycocalyx)

7

what are the 6 functions of membrane protein?

1. form ion channels (substances pass into or out of cell)
2. transporters or carriers
3. receptors (ligands)
4. enzymes
5. linkers
6. cell-identity markers

8

what are the various fluids that substances move to and from cells?

1. intracellular fluid (ICF) or cytosol
2. extracellular fluid (ECF):
-interstitial/intercellular fluid (b/t cells of tissues)
-plasma (blood vessel)
-lymph (lymphatic vessels)

9

how does substances move across plasma membrane?

1. passive processes
2. active processes
3. vesicular transport

10

which process describes: substance move across plasma membrane due to their own kinetic energy, DOWN a concentration gradient?

passive process
Osmosis
Facilitated diffusion

11

In active transport...?

substances move across a plasma membrane due to energy provided by ATP, AGAINST concentration gradient

12

describe vesicular transport

energy (from ATP) is expended so that vesicles either detach from plasma membrane to import sub into cell or fuse to export

13

In which organelle does this occur: cytosol is intracellular fluid in which organelles are suspended and in which solutes are dissolved and is the site of metabolic reactions, transport of sub, etc...

cytoplasm

14

what is cytoskeleton?

network of 3 types of protein filaments that provide shape to cell and play roles in cell movement as well as movements of organelles within cells

15

what are the 3 types of protein filaments that make up cytoskeleton and name their characteristics?

1. microfilaments/microvilli
2. microtubules: determine cell shape and function in intracellular transport of organelles -> important component of flagella, cilla, centrioles, mitotic spindle
3. intermediate filaments: help position organelles as well as strengthen and give shape to cell

16

organelles

intracellular structures that have characteristic shapes and perform specialized functions

17

what is function of centrosomes (centrioles)

-aligns cells to prepare for mitosis

18

ribosomes

- organelles where protein synthesis occurs

19

what are the 2 types of endoplasmic reticulum (ER)?

- rough ER: studded with ribosomes that synthesize proteins destined to be secreted or delivered to lysosomes or to plasma membrane
- smooth ER: no ribosomes, but are sites for lipid synthesis, toxin detoxification, calcium storage in muscle cells, etc.

20

golgi complex

- cisternae (folds)
- receives proteins and lipids from rough ER
- modifies, sorts, packages these proteins and lipids into vesicles for delivery to lysosomes, the plasma membrane or to be secreted

21

lysosomes

- spherical membrane-enclosed sacs that form from Golgi complex
- contain numerous digestive enzymes -> autophagy (intracellular digestion), or autolysis (cell death)

22

peroxisomes

- detoxify cell (important in liver & kidney cells)

23

proteasomes

- detoxify cells
- contain proteases used for destruction of cytosolic proteins

24

why are mitochondria called the "powerhouse" of cells?

bc they produce, via cellular respiration, large quantities of energy-rich ATP molecules used to provide energy for cellular processes

25

which membrane-enclosed organelle is often sausage-shaped and self-replicates?

mitochondria

26

what are the 3 types of passive process?

1. diffusion: down concentration gradient w/o aid from other things
2. osmosis
3. facilitated diffusion: move with aid of transporter protein

27

what are the 3 types of vesicular transport?

1. endocytosis: receptor-mediate endocytosis; phagocytosis; pinocytosis

2. exocytosis: secretory vesicles

3. transcytosis: sub are moved by vesicles into a cell on one side, across the cell, then out of cell on other side

28

where is centrosome located and describe its shape?

-located near nucleus and consists of pair of centrioles (rt angle from each other)

29

what is the largest organelle that is usually spherical or oval-shaped?

nucleus

30

what is anucleated?

erythrocytes

31

what is an example of multinucleated cell?

skeletal muscle cells

32

how many genes in human genome?

30,000

33

nucleus contains 1 or more spherical nucleoli, what happens here?

subunit of ribosomes are produced

34

chromatin is located where, and chromatin is composed of?

inside nucleus, and chromatin is composed of DNA and associated proteins called histones organized into nucleosomes

35

what is arranged along the chromosomes in the nucleus, and what is it?

genes, which are the units of hereditary information

36

what is the total genetic information in a cell?

genome

37

when certain cells undergo orderly, genetically programmed death during embryological, fetal, and postnatal development, what is it called?

apoptosis

38

how is apoptosis triggered?

by intracellular or extracellular agents that induce activation of enzymes by "cell-suicide" genes

39

how to apoptosis cause cell death?

these enzymes damage cytoplasmic components

40

how does apoptosis differ from NECROSIS?

necrosis is a pathological type of cell death that results from tissue injury

41

what are the 4 major families of tissues that the body is composed of?

1. epithelial
2. connective
3. muscular
4. nervous

42

which tissue covers body surfaces, lines hollow organs, body cavities, and ducts, and also forms glands?

epithelial tissue

43

which tissue protects and supports the body and its organs, binds organs together, stores energy reserves as fat, and provides immunity?

connective tissue

44

which tissue generates physical force for movement and thereby generates body heat?

muscular tissue

45

which tissue detects changes in a variety of conditions and responds by initiating and transmitting nerve impulses (signals) that help control and coordinate body activities?

nervous tissue

46

what are cell junctions?

points of contact b.t neighboring plasma membranes

47

what are the 5 major types of cell junctions

1. tight junctions
2. adherens junctions
3. desmosomes
4. hemidesmosomes
5. gap junctions

48

which junction prevent the passage of substances b.t cells?

tight junctions

49

which junction forms tight seals b.t cells such as the epithelial cells that comprise the inner lining of stomach, intestines, and UB?

tight junctions

50

which junction helps epithelial surfaces resist separation?

adherens junctions

51

which junction prevents epidermal cells from separating under tension?

desmosomes

52

which junction prevents cardiac muscle cells from pulling apart during contraction?

desmosomes

53

which junction strongly anchor cells to an underlying basement membrane?

hemidesmosomes

54

which junction is formed by minute, fluid-filled tunnels that permit passage of electrical signals or chemicals (i.e., ions and small molecules) from 1 cell to a neighboring cell?

gap junction

55

where are gap junctions located in?

in some parts of nervous system, heart muscles, and in gastrointestinal tract

56

what are some of the functions of epithelial tissue or epithelium?

protection
filtration
secretion
absorption
excretion

57

which tissue has avascular tissue that exchanges materials with adjacent connective tissue via diffusion?

epithelial tissue

58

which tissue has a nerve supply?

epithelial tissue

59

which tissue cells have lateral surfaces, apical (free) surface and basal surface?

epithelial tissue

60

what are the 2 major types of epithelial tissue?

1. covering and lining epithelium
2. glandular epithelium

61

what are the arrangements of covering and lining epithelium tissue?

1. simple (unilaminar) epithelium (single layer of cells)
2. pseudostratified epithelium (single layer that appears stratified)
3. stratified (multilaminar) epithelium (2 or more layers of cells)

62

what are the cells shapes of epithelial tissue?

1. squamous (flattened cell)
2. cuboidal (cube or hexagons)
3. columnar (tall & cylindrical)
4. transitional (cells able to undergo changes in shape caused by distention)

63

epithelium are classified by what characteristics?

according to NUMBER OF LAYERS present, and CELL SHAPES (in apical layer)

64

SIMPLE SQUAMOUS EPITHELIUM

- located in areas subject to little wear and tear
- adapted for DIFFUSION (ex. lung alveoli) and FILTRATION (ex. blood filtration in kidneys)

65

SIMPLE CUBOIDAL EPITHELIUM

SECRETION & ABSORPTION (ex. lines kidney tubules and smaller ducts to many glands

66

SIMPLE COLUMNAR EPITHELIUM

some have cilla (ex. upper respiratory passageways) and some have microvilli (to increase efficiency of absorption

67

PSEUDOSTRATIFIED COLUMNAR EPITHELIUM

functions in secretion of movt of materials by ciliary action (upper respiratory passageways)

68

STRATIFIED SQUAMOUS EPITHELIUM

provides protection in areas subject to wear and tear (ex. outer layer of skin, lining of mouth)

69

STRATIFIED CUBOIDAL EPITHELIUM

(rare type)
provides protection (ex. ducts of adult sweat glands)

70

STRATIFIED COLUMNAR EPITHELIUM

(rare type)
protection and secretion (ex. large ducts of some glands)

71

TRANSITIONAL EPITHELIUM

contains cells that may undergo changes in shape and therefore is located in areas subject to stretching (ex. UB)

72

what are specialized epithelial cells organized to from GLANDS that SECRETE substance into ducts, onto a surface, or into blood?

glandular epithelium

73

which glands are ductless and secrete hormones which diffuse through the interstitial fluid into the blood?

what are examples of this gland?

endocrine glands

ex. thyroid gland, adrenal glands

74

which glands secrete substances into DUCTS and are structurally classified into UNICELLULAR and MULTICELLULAR GLANDS?

exocrine glands

75

what are examples of exocrine glands?

sweat and salivary glands

76

which glands are functionally classified into MEROCRINE or ECCRINE (ex. salivary), APOCRINE (mammary), and HOLOCRINE (sebaceous) glands?

exocrine glands