Flashcards in WK6 - Cardiovascular System: Blood Deck (46):
the cardiovascular system consists of:
blood vessels ( arteries, arterioles, capillaries, venules and veins)
blood is a connective tissue composed of a liquid portion called ____, and a cellular portions consisting of various ____ .
cells and cell fragments
what is hematology?
study of blood, blood-forming tissues, and associated disorders
what is the functions of blood?
1. TRANSPORTATION of oxygen, carbon dioxide, nutrients, heat, wastes, and hormones
2. REGULATION of pH, body temp, and water content of cells
3. PROTECTION against blood loss via clotting, and against foreign microbes and toxins via the action of phagocytic white blood cells and specialized plasma proteins
what are the physical characteristics of blood?
1. denser and more viscous than water
2. temp of 38 degree celsius
3. pH normally b/t 7.35 and 7.45
4. constitues about 8% of total body weight
5. average volume of 5 to 6 liters in adult males and 4 to 5 liters in adult females
what are characteristics of blood plasma or plasma?
1. straw-colored liquid
2. accounts for about 55% of volume of blood
3. consists of about 91.5% water and 8.5% solutes
the 8.5 % solutes in blood plasma includes what?
plasma proteins, including albumins, globulins (such as immunoglobulins or antibodies), and fibrinogens, as well as waste molecules, nutrient molecules, enzymes, hormones, gases, and electrolytes
what are the formed elements of blood?
1. erythrocytes or RBC
2. leukocytes or WBC
-granular leukocytes (granulocytes)
-agranular leukocytes (agranulocytes)
natural killer cells
what is the percentage of total blood volume occupied by RBCs called?
By what process are blood cells formed and where?
hemopoiesis or hematopoiesis, occurs only in RED BONE MARROW (myeloid tissue)
what regulates the differentiation and proliferation of specific progenitor cells?
hormones called hemopoietic growth factors
hormones called hemopoietic growth factors include?
1. erythropoeitin (EPO / has O2 binding capabilities)
2. thrombopoietin (TPO / creates clots)
3. cytokines including colony-stimulating factors (CSFs) and interleukins
greater than 99% of formed elements in the blood are?
a healthy adult male has about how much erythrocytes per microliter of blood?
Male: 5.4 million erythrocytes per microliter of blood
Female: 4.8 million erythrocytes per microliter of blood
describe the shape of RBC
flexible, biconcave disc that lacks a nucleus and other organelles
The cytosol of each RBC contains about how much dissolved hemoglobin molecules?
each hemoglobin molecule consist of what?
4 globin chains
4 heme groups
hemoglobin can bind reversibly to OXYGEN (to form oxyhemoglobin), this permits erythrocytes to?
transport oxygen from lungs to other tissue of the body
hemoglobin can also bind reversibly to some of the CO2 (to form carbaminohemoglobin), which permits erythrocytes to do what?
transport some of the CO2 from tissues to the lungs to be expelled
hemoglobin plays a role in regulation of blood flow and blood pressure
erythropoiesis starts in the red bone marrow and progresses through the following successive stages of differentiation:
2. anucleate reticulocyte that enters the blood stream
hypoxia stimulates the kidneys to release _____, which in turn stimulates ________.
erythropoietin, which in turn stimulates erythropoiesis
what is anemia?
reduced ability of hemoglobin to carry O2 in blood
what are the two major blood group systems, each based on the presence or absence of genetically determined cell-surface antigens (called isoantigens or agglutinogens)?
1. ABO blood grouping system
2. Rh blood grouping system
leukocytes (WBCs) have a nucleus and do not contain hemoglobin.
- B cells (makes antibodies, protective mechanism)
- T cells and natural killer cells (search and destroys pathogen invasions)
monocytes exit blood vessels and differentiate into _____, including ________________________________.
fixed macrophages and wandering macrophages
the life span of WBC?
ranges from several hours to years, MOST live for only several days
average number of WBC ranges from?
5000 to 10,000 per microliter of blood
what is the ratio of RBC to WBC?
how does WBC leave capillaries?
what is the general function of WBC?
to combat microbes and toxin by phagocytosis or immune responses
neutrophils and macrophages are attracted to sites of infection by ________ and are active in ___________.
"Neal and Mac takes a Taxi (chemotasis) to get the infection checked out"
basophils release substances which ...?
intensify the inflammatory reaction and are involved in hypersensitivity (allergic) reactions
eosinophils release what to combat histamine in allergic reactions, and is effective against certain ___?
effective against certain parasitic worms
B cells develop into __________, which secrete _________ that does what?
secrete antibodies that destroy bacteria and inactivate their toxins
T cells attack what?
and are responsible for?
- viruses, fungi, transplanted cells, cancer cells, and some bacteria
- responsible for transfusion reactions, allergies, and rejection of transplanted organs
natural killer (NK) cells attack a wide variety of ?
infectious microbes and certain spontaneously arising tumor cells
what determines the percentage of each type of WBC?
differential white blood cell count
what stimulates myeloid stem cells to differentiate ultimately into megakaryocytes?
how are platelets produced?
by shedding 2000-3000 membrane-enclosed fragments of cytoplasm from each megakaryocyte
the average number of platelets range from?
150,000 to 400,000 platelets per microliter of blood
each platelet is a small disc-shaped structure whose cytoplasm lacks a nucleus?
how do platelets help repair slightly damaged blood vessels?
by forming a platelet plug and promoting formation of blood clot
platelets have a life span of?
5 to 9 days