Flashcards in WK9 - Endocrine System (not comprehensive) Deck (47):
T or F: The endocrine system is a Homeostatic System.
What are the 2 Homeostatic Systems of the body?
1. Endocrine System
2. Nervous System
What is the difference between they way the Endocrine System & the Nervous System regulate balance?
Endocrine System uses hormones.
Nervous System uses electric impulses.
Where anatomically does NeuroEndocrinology begin?
In the brain, in the Hypothalamus & Pituitary Gland.
What anatomical structure does the Pituitary Gland sit on?
Sella Turcica on the Sphenoid Bone
The Hypothalamus is the "Master" regulator. And the Pituitary Gland is the "Master" ______?
- The Pituitary is the Master Gland.
- The Hypothalamus is the "Master" regulator (though it is not a Gland), because the Hypothalamus is the master of the Pituitary Gland.
- Hypothalamus receives input from the brain.
What is the function of the Anterior Pituitary Gland?
Releases a group of hormones that are stimulating hormones or inhibitory hormones
What is the function of the Posterior Pituitary Gland?
Stores Oxytocin & ADH (that is produced by Hypothalamus)
The Pituitary Gland is superior or inferior to the Hypothalamus?
Pituitary Gland is INFERIOR to the Hypothalamus
T or F: The Hypothalamus is between the Pituitary Gland and the Pineal Gland.
What is the name for the bridge that connects the Hypothalamus and the Pituitary?
What does the Pineal Gland secrete?
What does Melatonin do?
- Regulates our sleep cycles
- Identifies cancer cells (secondary function)
What is the nickname for the Thyroid Gland?
What are some symptoms that differentiate between Hyperthyroid and Hypothyroid?
- Hyperthyroid patients generally have unexplained weight loss, excess hair growth, very oily skin (signs that indicate body is metabolizing too fast)
- Hypothyroid patients generally have unexplained weight gain, hair loss, dry skin, and bulging eyes (signs that indicate body is metabolizing too slow)
What are the different kinds of Hyperthyroidism?
- Primary Hyperthryroidism: Normal TSH & elevated T3/T4
- Secondary Hyperthyroidism: Elevated TSH & elevated T3/T4 (Thyroid is fine but there may be problems with Pituitary)
- The point is: need to ask the question about what the root problem is? Is it just an issue with the Thyroid, or also an issue with the Pituitary?
TSH is secreted by? T3/T4 is secreted by?
- Anterior Pituitary secretes TSA
- Thyroid secretes T3/T4
What is the function of the Thyroid?
- Secretes T3/T4
- Secretes Calcitonin, which is involved in bone/calcium regulation
What are the anatomical structures of the Thyroid?
- Sits on the Thyroid Cartilage
- Isthmus connecting left & right
- Parathyroid glands behind the Thyroid
The Thyroid is a ______-craving organ.
What is a goiter?
An anatomical engorgement of the Thyroid -- but not necessarily endocrine or chemical abnormality.
T or F: The Thyroid is superficial and palable.
The Parathyroids have how many parts?
T or F: The Thymus is an endocrine gland.
What is the nickname for the Adrenal Glands?
T or F: Hormones and Pharmaceuticals compete for Receptors.
What does Human growth hormone (hGH) do?
- Increases size
- Temporarily increases testosterone production (sometimes used as an illegal drug by athletes)
What is the function of Adrenocorticotropic Hormone (ACTH)?
Stimulates the adrenal cortex to secrete glucocorticoids
What is the function of Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH) and Luteinizing Hormone (LH)
Cortisol is also known as?
the Stress hormone
What is the function of Antidiuretic Hormone (ADH)?
- Allows you to hold onto water.
- Causes the kidneys to return more water to the blood, thus decreasing urine volume.
What are the two types of Diabetes?
- Diabetes Mellitus (Type 1 & Type 2)
- Diabetes Insipidus (a secondary type of diabetes; onset is due to ADH)
Explain the anatomy and function of the Thymus.
- Thymus sits behind the sternum and releases a group of hormones that ultimately are responsible for making antibodies (permanent protection).
- Thymus only works if you get sick.
What is hyperparathyroidism?
Overactive Parathyroids, which could result in severe Osteoporosis (among other things).
Where are the Adrenal Glands located?
Above the Kidneys (Supra-Renal)
What does the Adrenal Cortex secrete?
The Adrenal Glands are highly reactive to the ______ Nervous System
Sympathetic Nervous System
What is Cushing's syndrome?
- Too much Cortisol released
- Patient is so inflamed their face looks swollen; often has rashes
What is Addison's disease?
Too little Cortisol, which isn't good either (bc Cortisol allows us to react).
T or F: The Pancreas is both an endocrine and exocrine gland.
T or F: Pancreatic disease is the silent killer.
(i.e. Steve Jobs)
What are the 4 types of hormone-secreting cells in a Pancreatic Islet?
1. Alpha or A cells -- secrete glucagon
2. Beta or B cells -- secrete insulin
3. Delta or D cells -- secrete somatostatin
4. F cells -- secrete pancreatic polypeptide
Describe the location of the Pancrease?
- Sits almost dead center
- Neighbor to Spleen
What is the function of the Ovaries?
The Ovaries produce:
- female sex hormones (estrogen & progesterone)
What is the function of the Testes?
Testes produce the primary androgen, which is Testosterone.
The Parathyroids secrete Parathyroid Hormone. What is the function of this hormone?
- Parathyroid Hormone stimulates Osteoclasts, which accelerate bone breakdown bc the body may need calcium for other uses.
- Therefore Parathyroid Hormone increases blood calcium?
- Note: Parathyroid Hormone & Calcitonin have an antagonistic relationship with one another.