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Flashcards in week 3 - have fun. Deck (172):
1

what is the major function of the respiratory system

to supply the body with oxygen and dispose of carbon dioxide

2

what happens during pulmonary ventilation

air is moved into and out fo the lungs so the gases there are continuously changed and refreshed

3

what happens during external respiration

oxygen diffuses from the lungs to the blood, and carbon dioxide diffuses from the blood to the lungs

4

what happens during the transport of respiratory gases

oxygen is transported from the lungs to the tissue cells of the body, and carbon dioxide is transported from the tissue cells to the lungs

5

what happens during internal respiration

oxygen diffuses from blood to tissue cells, and carbon dioxide diffuses from tissue cells to blood

6

what are the four processes of respiration

pulmonary ventilation, external respiration, transport of respiratoy gases, and internal respiration

7

the actual use of oxygen and production of carbon dioxide by tissue cells is known as_

cellular respiration

8

what are the structures that form the respiratory passageways

nose, nasal cavity, paranasal sinuses, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, & lungs

9

what are the two zones the respiratory system is divided into

the respiratory zone & the conducting zone

10

which zone is the zone that consists of those structures where gas exchange occurs

the respiratory zone

11

which zone is composed of the respiratory bronchioles, alveolar ducts, alveolar sacs and alveoli?

the respiratory zone

12

which zone includes the structures that filter, warm, and moisten air and conduct air into the lungs

the conducting zone

13

what do the conducting zone organs do

cleanse, humidify, and warm incoming air

14

what are the five functions of the nose

1. provides an airway for respiration, 2. moistens and warms entering air, 3. filters and cleans inspired air, 4. serves as a resonating chamber for speech, 5. houses the olfactory receptors

15

the cardiovascular system and respiratory system cooperate in order to:

1. supply oxygen, which is required by cells to produce ATP, 2. eliminate carbon dioxide, which produces acidity that is toxic to cells

16

what is the difference between the respiratory system and the cardiovascular system

the respiratory system provides for gas exchange, intake of oxgen, and elimination of carbon dioxide, while the cardiovascular system transports these gases in the blood between the lungs and the body's cells

17

what would happen if either the respiratory system or cardiovascular system failed

failure of one system results in rapid death due to oxygen starvation and accumulation of waste molecules

18

what structures are included in the conducting zone

nose, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, bronchioles, terminal bronchioles

19

what structures are in the upper respiratory system

nose, pharynx, structures associated with the previous two

20

what structures are in the lower respiratory system

larynx, trachea, bronchi, lungs

21

T/F the respiratory system regulates pH

T

22

T/F the respiratory system contains receptors for smell

T

23

T/F the respiratory system filters inspired air

T

24

T/F the respiratory system produces sound

T

25

T/F the respiratory system eliminates some water vapor and heat in exhaled air

T

26

otorhinolaryngology

the medical specialty that deals with the diagnosis and treatment of diseases of the ears, nose, and throat

27

pulmonologist

a specialist in the diagnosis and treatment of lung disease

28

what is the bony frameowrk that makes up the external nose

frontal bone, nasal bones, and maxillae (and flexible hyaline cartilage)

29

what are the two cartilage structures of the nose

septal nasal cartilage, and major and minor alar cartilages

30

what is another name for the nostrils and where do they lead into

external nares; nasal vestibules

31

the internal nose has openings for ducts from what two structures

the paranasal sinuses and the nasolacrimal ducts

32

what happens as air enters the nostrils

it is filtered by course hairs that line the nasal vestibules

33

after air is filtered by the course hairs that line the nasal vestibules, where does it whirl around through

the superior, middle, and inferior meatuses formed by the conchae.

34

as air flows through the nose, does it come into contact with olfactory epithelium

yes

35

air is warmed by_

blood in capillaries

36

air is moistened by_

mucus secreted by goblet cells

37

how is air cleansed

by mucus trapping dust particles. Cilia move the dust-laden mucus toward the pharynx

38

cutting the phrenic nerves will result in what

paralysis of the diaphragm

39

the detergent-like substance that keeps alveoli from collapsing between breaths because it reduces surface tension of the water film in the alveoli is called what?

surfactant

40

what determines the direction of gas movement?

partial pressure gradient

41

when the inspiratory muscles contract what happens?

the size of the thoracic cavity is increased in both length and diameter

42

the nutrient blood supply of the lungs is provided by what?

the bronchial arteries

43

oxygen and carbon dioxide are exchanged in the lungs and through all cell membranes by what?

diffusion

44

what has the greatest stimulating effect on the respiratory centers in the brain?

carbon dioxide

45

damage to which of the following will result in cessation of breathing?
A. the pontine respiratory group
b. the ventral respiratory group of the medulla
c. the stretch receptors in the lungs
d. the dorsal respiratory group of the medulla

b. the ventral respiratory group of the medulla

46

air moving from the nose to the trachea passed by a number of structures. list as many of these as you can.

the structures that air passes by are the nasal cavity, oropharynx, laryngopharynx, and larynx

47

which structure seals the larynx when we swallow?

the epiglottis

48

which structural features of the trachea allow it to expand and contract, yet keep it from collapsing?

a stack of 16-20, incomplete, c-shaped cartilage rings of the trachea allow it to expand and contract and yet keep it from collapsing

49

What features of the alveoli and their respiratory membranes suit them to their function of exchanging gases by diffusion?

the many tiny alveoli together have a large surface area.
also, the thinness of their respiratory membranes make them ideal for gas exchange

50

a 3 year old boy is brought to the ER after aspiring a peanut. bronchoscopy confirms the suspicion that the peanut is lodged in a bronchus and then it is successfully extracted. which main bronchus was the peanut most likely in?

the peanut was most likely in the right main bronchus because it is wider and more vertical than the left

51

name the two types of circulation in the lungs and their role.

the 2 circulations of the lungs are the pulmonary circulation, which delivers deoxygenated blood to the lungs for oxygenation and returns oxygenated blood to the heart, and the bronchial circulation, which provides systemic (oxygenated) blood to the tissues

52

what is the driving force for pulmonary ventilation?

the driving force for pulmonary ventilation is a pressure gradient created by changes in the thoracic volume

53

premature infants often lack adequate surfactant. how dos this affect their ability to breathe?

a lack of surfactant increases surface tension in the alveoli and causes them to collapse between breaths

54

Lung collapse is prevented by what?

high surface tension of pleural fluid

55

what is the correct route of air flow in the respiratory tract

pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, bronchioles

56

During inspiration, intrapulmonary pressure is greater or less than atmospheric pressure?

less than

57

Pulmonary surfactant is produced by:

type 2 alveolar cells

58

which type of alveolar cells are simple squamous epithelial cells that form a mostly continuous lining of the alveolar wall where gas exchange occurs?

type 1 alveolar cells

59

the pleurae are vital to the integrity of the lungs because:

they produce a lubricating serious secretion, allowing the lungs to glide over the throax wall during breathing

60

What does not diminish lung compliance?

factors that impair the flexibility of the thoracic cage

61

what is not an event necessary to supply the body with O2 and dispose of CO2?

blood pH adjustment

62

What is intrapulmonary pressure?

the difference btw atmospheric pressure and respiratory pressure

63

thyroid cartilage is contained in what structure?

the larynx

64

Vital capacity is what?

the maximum amount of air that can be expired after a maximum inspiratory effort

65

what are the major fxns of the interior nose structures

1. incoming air is warmed, moistened & filtered
2. olfactory stimuli are detected
3. large, hollow resonating chambers modify speech sounds

66

where does the nasal cavity receive its blood supply from

the sphenopalatine branch of the maxillary artery and from the opthalmic artery

67

which nerves innervate the nose

the olfactory nerves and the trigeminal nerves

68

what are the four pairs of paranasal sinuses that mirror one another

1. frontal (palpable) 2. sphenoidal (further back into head) 3. maxillary (under zygoma) 4. ethmoidal (at bridge of nose)

69

the nasal cavity is divided by

the nasal septum, which splits it into right and left halves

70

what does the nasal septum attach to

the vomer and the perpendicular plate of the ethmoid bone

71

where does the pharynx extend from

the base of the skull to the level of C6

72

what is the function of the pharynx

it functions as a passageway for air and food, and provides a resonating chamber for speech sounds, and houses the tonsils

73

what are the three major portions of the pharynx

superior nasopharynx (an air conduit), intermediate oropharynx (passage way for air and food), inferior laryngopharynx (passageway for air and food)

74

where are the tonsils found

in the oropharynx and nasopharynx

75

what is the difference between true and false vocal cords

T: vibrate to produce sound/location: lower ventricular folds of the larynx
F: just for support/location: upper ventricular folds of the larynx

76

in reference to sound waves, the greater the pressure of air,

the louder the sound

77

in reference to sound waves and pitch, the greater the tension on the vocal folds,

the higher the pitch

78

most of the muscles of the pharynx are innervated by nerve branches from the_

pharyngeal plexus supplied by the glossopharyngeal nerve and vagus nerve

79

the structure also known as the voice box, and why?

the larynx. It contains the vocal folds

80

what is the portion of the cavity above the vocal folds called

vestibule of the larynx

81

the _____, which is located in the _____, prevents food or liquids from entering the respiratory channels during swallowing

epiglottis, larynx

82

the structure also known as the adam's apple is called what? Located where?

thyroid cartilage, larynx

83

the thyroid cartilage is composed of what kind of cartilage

hyaline cartilage

84

what is the structure of hyaline cartilage that forms the inferior wall of the larynx?

cricoid cartilage

85

what are the two cartilage structures of the larynx that are involved in moving the vocal folds

arytenoid cartilages

86

what are the two cartilage structures of the larynx that are located at the apex of each arytenoid cartilage and are horn-shaped

carniculate cartilages

87

what are the two cartilage structures of the larynx that are club-shaped and located anterior to the corniculate cartilages

cuneiform cartilages

88

what can be seen on the inner lining of most of the larynx

ciliated mucous membrane. Cilia move dust-laden mucous upward toward the pharynx

89

what nerves innervate the larynx

vagus nerve

90

what is the difference between hypertrophy, hyperplasia, dysplasia, and metaplasia

hypertrophy: increase in size (often seen in athletes)
hyperplasia: increase in # of cells
dysplasia & metaplasia: a change in cell type. Can be cancerous. BAD!

91

where does the trachea expand from

the larynx to T5, where it divides into right and left primary bronchi

92

the inner lining of the trachea contains_

ciliated mucosa, which move dust-laden mucous upward toward the pharynx

93

what are the layers of the tracheal wall from deep to superficial

mucosa, submucosa, media (middle tunic), adventitia

94

what is meant by "incomplete" rings of the trachea

the open sides of the rings face the esophagus and permit slight expansion of the esophagus into the trachea during swallowing in addition to providing support to prevent collapse

95

the trachea is innervated by what nerves

the vagus nerves

96

what procedures are done to reestablish airflow past a treacheal obstruction

tracheotomy and intubation

97

where is the bronchi located

at the superior border of T5, the trachea divides into the right primary bronchus, which enters the right lung, and the left primary bronchus, which enters the left lung

98

structurally, what is the difference btw the right and left bronchus

the right primary bronchus is more vertical, shorter, and wider than the left one.

99

what is the internal ridge located at the point where the trachea divides into the right and left primary bronchi

carina

100

after entering the lungs, the primary bronchi divide into_

secondary (lobar) bronchi. (3 in the right lung, 2 in the left lung)

101

the secondary bronchi branch into_

tertiary (segmental) bronchi, which in turn divide into bronchioles

102

the bronchioles branch into progressively smaller and smaller bronchioles, and eventually turn into _

terminal bronchioles

103

bronchial tree

the continuous branching from the trachea to small bronchioles

104

what are 4 changes that can be observed as branching progresses in the bronchial tree

1. the epithelium changes from ciliated to non ciliated
2. the amount of cartilage decreases and then is eventually lost
3. smooth muscle tissue increases
4. mucosa thins

105

at the very end of terminal branches is where we can find_

alveoli (air sacs)

106

where do the bronchi receive their blood supply from

the right and left bronchial arteries

107

what separates the two lungs

the heart and other structures in the medinastinum
*medinastinum - the medial cavity of the thorax containing the heart, great vessels, and trachea

108

what are the lungs individually enclosed with and protected by

pleural membrane

109

what are the two layers of the pleural membrane

1. the superficial parietal pleura (which is attached to the thoracic wall)
2. the deeper visceral pleura ( which is attached to the lungs)

110

what is the space btw the pleura called and what is its purpose

it is the pleural cavity, which contains a lubricating fluid secreted by the membranes to reduce friction

111

pleurisy or pleuritis is_

pain due to friction between the two layers of the pleural membrane

112

what is the location of the lungs

the lungs extend from the diaphragm to just slightly above the clavicles and lie against the ribs anteriorly and posteriorly

113

the lung base vs. lung apex

the broad inferior portion of the lung is the base, and the narrow superior portion is the apex

114

where does the costalsurface of the lung lie against?

the ribs

115

through which structure do the bronchi, pulmonary blood vessels, lymphatic vessels, and nerves enter and exit the lung?

the hilum, on the mediastinal (medial) surface of the lung

116

where on the lung does the heart rest against

on the medial surface of the left lung, there is a concave cardiac notch

117

T/F, both lungs have an oblique fissure

T

118

T/F, the left lung has a horizontal fissure

F, the right lung has a horizontal fissure

119

what is the difference in fxn of the oblique fissure per lung

the oblique fissure in the left lung separates the superior lobe from the inferior lobe. In the right lung, the superior part of the oblique fissure separates the superior lobe from the inferior lobe, and from the middle lobe

120

which lung is thicker, broader and shorter

the right lung

121

the right primary bronchus divides into_

the superior, middle, and inferior secondary (lobar) bronchi.

122

the left primary bronchus divides into _

the superior and inferior secondary (lobar) bronchi.

123

alveolar sacs

two or more alveoli that share a common opening

124

wandering phagocytes that remove dust and other debris in the alveolar spaces are called_

alveolar macrophages (dust cells)

125

what are the four layers of the respiratory membrane

1. a layer of type 1 and type 2 alveolar cells with wandering alveolar macrophages that constitute the alveolar wall
2. an epithelial basement membrane underneath the alveolar wall
3. a capillary basement membrane that is often fused to the epithelial basement membrane
4. endothelial cells of the capillary

126

what are the three major processes of respiration

1. pulmonary ventilation: breathing, which includes inspiration and expiration of air btw the lungs and the atmosphere
2. external respiratoin: the exchange of gases btw the air spaces in the lungs and the blood in pulmonary capillaries; the blood gains O2 and loses CO2
3. internal (tissue) respiration: the exchange of gases btw the blood in systemic capillaries and the body's cells; the blood loses O2 and gains CO2

127

what is the clinical connection between alveoli and disease

emphysema

128

what is the clinical connection between pulmonary ventilation and disease

lung cancer

129

the process of moving air into the lungs is known as_____, and it occurs when_

inhalation. Occurs when air pressure within the alveoli of the lungs, alveolar pressure, is lower than the atmospheric pressure.
*therefore, air rushes down the pressure gradient from the atmosphere into the lungs and inspiration ends when the pressure difference is eliminated

130

for inhalation to occur, the lungs must _____

expand

131

what is the most important inspiratory muscle

the diaphragm

132

what nerves innervate the diaphragm

phorenic nerve, C3 C4 C5

133

the process of moving air out of the lungs is known as_____, and it occurs when_

exhalation. It occurs when air pressure in the lungs is greater than atmospheric pressure

134

normal exhalation during quiet breathing depends on what two factors

a. the recoil of elastic fibers that were stretched during inspiration
b. the inward pull of surface tension due to the film of alveolar fluid

135

in which case does air rush DOWN the pressure gradient from the alvoli into the atmosphere

exhalation

136

what kind of exhalation involves the contractions of abdominal and internal intercostal muscles

FORCED exhalation

137

the area from which nerve impulses are sent to respiratory muscles consists of cluster of neurons located _____ in the _____ _____ and _____

Bilaterally
medulla oblongata
pons

138

the respiratory center consists of a dispersed group of neurons that are functionally divided into what three areas

1. the medullary rhythmicity area: located in medulla oblongata, controls basic rhythm of respiration, sends nerve impulses via phrenic nerves to the diaphragm to cause typical breathing cycle
2. pneumotaxic area: located in the superior portion of the pons, coordinates transition btw inspiration & expiration, transmits inhibitory impulses to limit duration of inspiration
3.apneustic area: located in the superior portion of the pons, coordinates transition btw inspiration & expiration, stimulates inspiratory area to prolong inspiration and therefore inhibit expiration; each stimulation occurs only when pneumotaxic area is inactive

139

normal resting state is aprox:

2 sec inhale, 3 sec exhale

140

when pneumotaxic area is more active, breathing rate is more _

rapid

141

the respiratory center is located in

the brain stem

142

how is it that we can voluntarily alter our pattern of breathing

(cortical influences) - the cerebral cortex has connections with the respiratory center

143

what does voluntary control of breathing allows us to

prevent water or irritating gases from entering the lungs

144

what are the functions of chemoreceptors

they monitor levels of CO2, H+, & O2, and provide input to the respiratory center.
Central chemoreceptors are located in the medulla oblongata
peripheral chemoreceptors are located in the aortic bodies and carotid bodies

145

what is the inflation (hering-breuer) reflex

a protective reflex intitiated by lung baroreceptors or stretch receptors to prevent overinflation of the lungs

146

which of the following laryngeal carilages is/are not paired?
A. epiglottis
b. arytenoid
c. cricoid
d. cuneiform
e. corniculate

a. epiglottis, c. cricoid

147

under ordinary circumstances, the inflation reflex is initiated by

overinflation of the alveoli and bronchioles

148

in mouth to mouth artificial respiration, the rescuer blows air from his or her own respiratory system into that of the victim. what happens?
A.expansion of the victim's lungs is brought about by blowing air in at higher than atmospheric pressure
b. during inflation of the lungs, the intrapleural pressure increases
c. this tecnique will not work if the victim has a hole in the chest wall, even if the lungs are intact
d.expiration during this procedure depends on the elasticity of the alveolar and thoracic walls
e. all of these

b. during inflation of the lungs, the intrapleural pressure increases

149

movement of air into and out of the lungs so that gases are continuously changed and refreshed

pulmonary ventilation

150

transport of oxygen from lungs to body cells and carbon dioxide from tissue cells to lungs

transport of respiratory gases

151

movement of oxygen from the blood to tissue cells, and of carbon dioxide from tissue cells to blood

internal respiration

152

movement of oxygen from the lungs to the blood, and of carbon dioxide from the blood to the lungs

external respiration

153

the actual site of gas exchange in the lungs

respiratory zone

154

the fairly rigid conduits for air to reach the gas exchange sites in the lungs

conducting zone

155

secretes mucus and antibacterial enzymes; traps dust, bacteria, and warms air during inspiration

nasal cavity

156

commonly called the throat; air leaves the nose and enters here en route to the lungs

pharynx

157

contains vocal cords that produce speech; called the voice box

larynx

158

descends from the larynx as a single tube reinforced with cartilage rings before it divides to go to each lung

trachea

159

major branches of the cartilage-reinforced tube that go to each lung

bronchi

160

terminal pockets of the lungs where respiratory gas exchange occurs

alveoli

161

single tube with C rings of cartilage

trachea

162

paired tubes with rings of cartilage

primary bronchi

163

three in the right lung; two in the left; plates of cartilage

secondary bronchi

164

about ten in each lung, small amounts of cartilage; smooth muscle dominates

tertiary bronchi

165

many small tubes of less than 1 mm in diameter; smooth muscle only in the walls; no cartilage

bronchioles

166

air moves into the lungs because

the gas pressure in the lungs becomes lower than the outside pressure as the diaphragm contracts

167

the movement of air into and out of the alveoli during a particular time is known as

alveolar ventilation

168

the movement of air into and out of the lungs is known as

pulmonary ventilation

169

the tissue that lines the trachea:

pseudostratified columnar epithelium

170

the _____ controls the respiratory rate

medulla

171

_____ pressure keeps the air spaces in the lung open

transpulmonary

172

the gas exchange between the blood and the alveoli

external respiration