Flashcards in week 3 - have fun. Deck (172):
what is the major function of the respiratory system
to supply the body with oxygen and dispose of carbon dioxide
what happens during pulmonary ventilation
air is moved into and out fo the lungs so the gases there are continuously changed and refreshed
what happens during external respiration
oxygen diffuses from the lungs to the blood, and carbon dioxide diffuses from the blood to the lungs
what happens during the transport of respiratory gases
oxygen is transported from the lungs to the tissue cells of the body, and carbon dioxide is transported from the tissue cells to the lungs
what happens during internal respiration
oxygen diffuses from blood to tissue cells, and carbon dioxide diffuses from tissue cells to blood
what are the four processes of respiration
pulmonary ventilation, external respiration, transport of respiratoy gases, and internal respiration
the actual use of oxygen and production of carbon dioxide by tissue cells is known as_
what are the structures that form the respiratory passageways
nose, nasal cavity, paranasal sinuses, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, & lungs
what are the two zones the respiratory system is divided into
the respiratory zone & the conducting zone
which zone is the zone that consists of those structures where gas exchange occurs
the respiratory zone
which zone is composed of the respiratory bronchioles, alveolar ducts, alveolar sacs and alveoli?
the respiratory zone
which zone includes the structures that filter, warm, and moisten air and conduct air into the lungs
the conducting zone
what do the conducting zone organs do
cleanse, humidify, and warm incoming air
what are the five functions of the nose
1. provides an airway for respiration, 2. moistens and warms entering air, 3. filters and cleans inspired air, 4. serves as a resonating chamber for speech, 5. houses the olfactory receptors
the cardiovascular system and respiratory system cooperate in order to:
1. supply oxygen, which is required by cells to produce ATP, 2. eliminate carbon dioxide, which produces acidity that is toxic to cells
what is the difference between the respiratory system and the cardiovascular system
the respiratory system provides for gas exchange, intake of oxgen, and elimination of carbon dioxide, while the cardiovascular system transports these gases in the blood between the lungs and the body's cells
what would happen if either the respiratory system or cardiovascular system failed
failure of one system results in rapid death due to oxygen starvation and accumulation of waste molecules
what structures are included in the conducting zone
nose, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, bronchioles, terminal bronchioles
what structures are in the upper respiratory system
nose, pharynx, structures associated with the previous two
what structures are in the lower respiratory system
larynx, trachea, bronchi, lungs
T/F the respiratory system regulates pH
T/F the respiratory system contains receptors for smell
T/F the respiratory system filters inspired air
T/F the respiratory system produces sound
T/F the respiratory system eliminates some water vapor and heat in exhaled air
the medical specialty that deals with the diagnosis and treatment of diseases of the ears, nose, and throat
a specialist in the diagnosis and treatment of lung disease
what is the bony frameowrk that makes up the external nose
frontal bone, nasal bones, and maxillae (and flexible hyaline cartilage)
what are the two cartilage structures of the nose
septal nasal cartilage, and major and minor alar cartilages
what is another name for the nostrils and where do they lead into
external nares; nasal vestibules
the internal nose has openings for ducts from what two structures
the paranasal sinuses and the nasolacrimal ducts
what happens as air enters the nostrils
it is filtered by course hairs that line the nasal vestibules
after air is filtered by the course hairs that line the nasal vestibules, where does it whirl around through
the superior, middle, and inferior meatuses formed by the conchae.
as air flows through the nose, does it come into contact with olfactory epithelium
air is warmed by_
blood in capillaries
air is moistened by_
mucus secreted by goblet cells
how is air cleansed
by mucus trapping dust particles. Cilia move the dust-laden mucus toward the pharynx
cutting the phrenic nerves will result in what
paralysis of the diaphragm
the detergent-like substance that keeps alveoli from collapsing between breaths because it reduces surface tension of the water film in the alveoli is called what?
what determines the direction of gas movement?
partial pressure gradient
when the inspiratory muscles contract what happens?
the size of the thoracic cavity is increased in both length and diameter
the nutrient blood supply of the lungs is provided by what?
the bronchial arteries
oxygen and carbon dioxide are exchanged in the lungs and through all cell membranes by what?
what has the greatest stimulating effect on the respiratory centers in the brain?
damage to which of the following will result in cessation of breathing?
A. the pontine respiratory group
b. the ventral respiratory group of the medulla
c. the stretch receptors in the lungs
d. the dorsal respiratory group of the medulla
b. the ventral respiratory group of the medulla
air moving from the nose to the trachea passed by a number of structures. list as many of these as you can.
the structures that air passes by are the nasal cavity, oropharynx, laryngopharynx, and larynx
which structure seals the larynx when we swallow?
which structural features of the trachea allow it to expand and contract, yet keep it from collapsing?
a stack of 16-20, incomplete, c-shaped cartilage rings of the trachea allow it to expand and contract and yet keep it from collapsing
What features of the alveoli and their respiratory membranes suit them to their function of exchanging gases by diffusion?
the many tiny alveoli together have a large surface area.
also, the thinness of their respiratory membranes make them ideal for gas exchange
a 3 year old boy is brought to the ER after aspiring a peanut. bronchoscopy confirms the suspicion that the peanut is lodged in a bronchus and then it is successfully extracted. which main bronchus was the peanut most likely in?
the peanut was most likely in the right main bronchus because it is wider and more vertical than the left
name the two types of circulation in the lungs and their role.
the 2 circulations of the lungs are the pulmonary circulation, which delivers deoxygenated blood to the lungs for oxygenation and returns oxygenated blood to the heart, and the bronchial circulation, which provides systemic (oxygenated) blood to the tissues
what is the driving force for pulmonary ventilation?
the driving force for pulmonary ventilation is a pressure gradient created by changes in the thoracic volume
premature infants often lack adequate surfactant. how dos this affect their ability to breathe?
a lack of surfactant increases surface tension in the alveoli and causes them to collapse between breaths
Lung collapse is prevented by what?
high surface tension of pleural fluid
what is the correct route of air flow in the respiratory tract
pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, bronchioles
During inspiration, intrapulmonary pressure is greater or less than atmospheric pressure?
Pulmonary surfactant is produced by:
type 2 alveolar cells
which type of alveolar cells are simple squamous epithelial cells that form a mostly continuous lining of the alveolar wall where gas exchange occurs?
type 1 alveolar cells
the pleurae are vital to the integrity of the lungs because:
they produce a lubricating serious secretion, allowing the lungs to glide over the throax wall during breathing
What does not diminish lung compliance?
factors that impair the flexibility of the thoracic cage
what is not an event necessary to supply the body with O2 and dispose of CO2?
blood pH adjustment
What is intrapulmonary pressure?
the difference btw atmospheric pressure and respiratory pressure
thyroid cartilage is contained in what structure?
Vital capacity is what?
the maximum amount of air that can be expired after a maximum inspiratory effort
what are the major fxns of the interior nose structures
1. incoming air is warmed, moistened & filtered
2. olfactory stimuli are detected
3. large, hollow resonating chambers modify speech sounds
where does the nasal cavity receive its blood supply from
the sphenopalatine branch of the maxillary artery and from the opthalmic artery
which nerves innervate the nose
the olfactory nerves and the trigeminal nerves
what are the four pairs of paranasal sinuses that mirror one another
1. frontal (palpable) 2. sphenoidal (further back into head) 3. maxillary (under zygoma) 4. ethmoidal (at bridge of nose)
the nasal cavity is divided by
the nasal septum, which splits it into right and left halves
what does the nasal septum attach to
the vomer and the perpendicular plate of the ethmoid bone
where does the pharynx extend from
the base of the skull to the level of C6
what is the function of the pharynx
it functions as a passageway for air and food, and provides a resonating chamber for speech sounds, and houses the tonsils
what are the three major portions of the pharynx
superior nasopharynx (an air conduit), intermediate oropharynx (passage way for air and food), inferior laryngopharynx (passageway for air and food)
where are the tonsils found
in the oropharynx and nasopharynx
what is the difference between true and false vocal cords
T: vibrate to produce sound/location: lower ventricular folds of the larynx
F: just for support/location: upper ventricular folds of the larynx
in reference to sound waves, the greater the pressure of air,
the louder the sound
in reference to sound waves and pitch, the greater the tension on the vocal folds,
the higher the pitch
most of the muscles of the pharynx are innervated by nerve branches from the_
pharyngeal plexus supplied by the glossopharyngeal nerve and vagus nerve
the structure also known as the voice box, and why?
the larynx. It contains the vocal folds
what is the portion of the cavity above the vocal folds called
vestibule of the larynx
the _____, which is located in the _____, prevents food or liquids from entering the respiratory channels during swallowing
the structure also known as the adam's apple is called what? Located where?
thyroid cartilage, larynx
the thyroid cartilage is composed of what kind of cartilage
what is the structure of hyaline cartilage that forms the inferior wall of the larynx?
what are the two cartilage structures of the larynx that are involved in moving the vocal folds
what are the two cartilage structures of the larynx that are located at the apex of each arytenoid cartilage and are horn-shaped
what are the two cartilage structures of the larynx that are club-shaped and located anterior to the corniculate cartilages
what can be seen on the inner lining of most of the larynx
ciliated mucous membrane. Cilia move dust-laden mucous upward toward the pharynx
what nerves innervate the larynx
what is the difference between hypertrophy, hyperplasia, dysplasia, and metaplasia
hypertrophy: increase in size (often seen in athletes)
hyperplasia: increase in # of cells
dysplasia & metaplasia: a change in cell type. Can be cancerous. BAD!
where does the trachea expand from
the larynx to T5, where it divides into right and left primary bronchi
the inner lining of the trachea contains_
ciliated mucosa, which move dust-laden mucous upward toward the pharynx
what are the layers of the tracheal wall from deep to superficial
mucosa, submucosa, media (middle tunic), adventitia
what is meant by "incomplete" rings of the trachea
the open sides of the rings face the esophagus and permit slight expansion of the esophagus into the trachea during swallowing in addition to providing support to prevent collapse
the trachea is innervated by what nerves
the vagus nerves
what procedures are done to reestablish airflow past a treacheal obstruction
tracheotomy and intubation
where is the bronchi located
at the superior border of T5, the trachea divides into the right primary bronchus, which enters the right lung, and the left primary bronchus, which enters the left lung
structurally, what is the difference btw the right and left bronchus
the right primary bronchus is more vertical, shorter, and wider than the left one.
what is the internal ridge located at the point where the trachea divides into the right and left primary bronchi
after entering the lungs, the primary bronchi divide into_
secondary (lobar) bronchi. (3 in the right lung, 2 in the left lung)
the secondary bronchi branch into_
tertiary (segmental) bronchi, which in turn divide into bronchioles
the bronchioles branch into progressively smaller and smaller bronchioles, and eventually turn into _
the continuous branching from the trachea to small bronchioles
what are 4 changes that can be observed as branching progresses in the bronchial tree
1. the epithelium changes from ciliated to non ciliated
2. the amount of cartilage decreases and then is eventually lost
3. smooth muscle tissue increases
4. mucosa thins
at the very end of terminal branches is where we can find_
alveoli (air sacs)
where do the bronchi receive their blood supply from
the right and left bronchial arteries
what separates the two lungs
the heart and other structures in the medinastinum
*medinastinum - the medial cavity of the thorax containing the heart, great vessels, and trachea
what are the lungs individually enclosed with and protected by
what are the two layers of the pleural membrane
1. the superficial parietal pleura (which is attached to the thoracic wall)
2. the deeper visceral pleura ( which is attached to the lungs)
what is the space btw the pleura called and what is its purpose
it is the pleural cavity, which contains a lubricating fluid secreted by the membranes to reduce friction
pleurisy or pleuritis is_
pain due to friction between the two layers of the pleural membrane
what is the location of the lungs
the lungs extend from the diaphragm to just slightly above the clavicles and lie against the ribs anteriorly and posteriorly
the lung base vs. lung apex
the broad inferior portion of the lung is the base, and the narrow superior portion is the apex
where does the costalsurface of the lung lie against?
through which structure do the bronchi, pulmonary blood vessels, lymphatic vessels, and nerves enter and exit the lung?
the hilum, on the mediastinal (medial) surface of the lung
where on the lung does the heart rest against
on the medial surface of the left lung, there is a concave cardiac notch
T/F, both lungs have an oblique fissure
T/F, the left lung has a horizontal fissure
F, the right lung has a horizontal fissure
what is the difference in fxn of the oblique fissure per lung
the oblique fissure in the left lung separates the superior lobe from the inferior lobe. In the right lung, the superior part of the oblique fissure separates the superior lobe from the inferior lobe, and from the middle lobe
which lung is thicker, broader and shorter
the right lung
the right primary bronchus divides into_
the superior, middle, and inferior secondary (lobar) bronchi.
the left primary bronchus divides into _
the superior and inferior secondary (lobar) bronchi.
two or more alveoli that share a common opening
wandering phagocytes that remove dust and other debris in the alveolar spaces are called_
alveolar macrophages (dust cells)
what are the four layers of the respiratory membrane
1. a layer of type 1 and type 2 alveolar cells with wandering alveolar macrophages that constitute the alveolar wall
2. an epithelial basement membrane underneath the alveolar wall
3. a capillary basement membrane that is often fused to the epithelial basement membrane
4. endothelial cells of the capillary
what are the three major processes of respiration
1. pulmonary ventilation: breathing, which includes inspiration and expiration of air btw the lungs and the atmosphere
2. external respiratoin: the exchange of gases btw the air spaces in the lungs and the blood in pulmonary capillaries; the blood gains O2 and loses CO2
3. internal (tissue) respiration: the exchange of gases btw the blood in systemic capillaries and the body's cells; the blood loses O2 and gains CO2
what is the clinical connection between alveoli and disease
what is the clinical connection between pulmonary ventilation and disease
the process of moving air into the lungs is known as_____, and it occurs when_
inhalation. Occurs when air pressure within the alveoli of the lungs, alveolar pressure, is lower than the atmospheric pressure.
*therefore, air rushes down the pressure gradient from the atmosphere into the lungs and inspiration ends when the pressure difference is eliminated
for inhalation to occur, the lungs must _____
what is the most important inspiratory muscle
what nerves innervate the diaphragm
phorenic nerve, C3 C4 C5
the process of moving air out of the lungs is known as_____, and it occurs when_
exhalation. It occurs when air pressure in the lungs is greater than atmospheric pressure
normal exhalation during quiet breathing depends on what two factors
a. the recoil of elastic fibers that were stretched during inspiration
b. the inward pull of surface tension due to the film of alveolar fluid
in which case does air rush DOWN the pressure gradient from the alvoli into the atmosphere
what kind of exhalation involves the contractions of abdominal and internal intercostal muscles
the area from which nerve impulses are sent to respiratory muscles consists of cluster of neurons located _____ in the _____ _____ and _____
the respiratory center consists of a dispersed group of neurons that are functionally divided into what three areas
1. the medullary rhythmicity area: located in medulla oblongata, controls basic rhythm of respiration, sends nerve impulses via phrenic nerves to the diaphragm to cause typical breathing cycle
2. pneumotaxic area: located in the superior portion of the pons, coordinates transition btw inspiration & expiration, transmits inhibitory impulses to limit duration of inspiration
3.apneustic area: located in the superior portion of the pons, coordinates transition btw inspiration & expiration, stimulates inspiratory area to prolong inspiration and therefore inhibit expiration; each stimulation occurs only when pneumotaxic area is inactive
normal resting state is aprox:
2 sec inhale, 3 sec exhale
when pneumotaxic area is more active, breathing rate is more _
the respiratory center is located in
the brain stem
how is it that we can voluntarily alter our pattern of breathing
(cortical influences) - the cerebral cortex has connections with the respiratory center
what does voluntary control of breathing allows us to
prevent water or irritating gases from entering the lungs
what are the functions of chemoreceptors
they monitor levels of CO2, H+, & O2, and provide input to the respiratory center.
Central chemoreceptors are located in the medulla oblongata
peripheral chemoreceptors are located in the aortic bodies and carotid bodies
what is the inflation (hering-breuer) reflex
a protective reflex intitiated by lung baroreceptors or stretch receptors to prevent overinflation of the lungs
which of the following laryngeal carilages is/are not paired?
a. epiglottis, c. cricoid
under ordinary circumstances, the inflation reflex is initiated by
overinflation of the alveoli and bronchioles
in mouth to mouth artificial respiration, the rescuer blows air from his or her own respiratory system into that of the victim. what happens?
A.expansion of the victim's lungs is brought about by blowing air in at higher than atmospheric pressure
b. during inflation of the lungs, the intrapleural pressure increases
c. this tecnique will not work if the victim has a hole in the chest wall, even if the lungs are intact
d.expiration during this procedure depends on the elasticity of the alveolar and thoracic walls
e. all of these
b. during inflation of the lungs, the intrapleural pressure increases
movement of air into and out of the lungs so that gases are continuously changed and refreshed
transport of oxygen from lungs to body cells and carbon dioxide from tissue cells to lungs
transport of respiratory gases
movement of oxygen from the blood to tissue cells, and of carbon dioxide from tissue cells to blood
movement of oxygen from the lungs to the blood, and of carbon dioxide from the blood to the lungs
the actual site of gas exchange in the lungs
the fairly rigid conduits for air to reach the gas exchange sites in the lungs
secretes mucus and antibacterial enzymes; traps dust, bacteria, and warms air during inspiration
commonly called the throat; air leaves the nose and enters here en route to the lungs
contains vocal cords that produce speech; called the voice box
descends from the larynx as a single tube reinforced with cartilage rings before it divides to go to each lung
major branches of the cartilage-reinforced tube that go to each lung
terminal pockets of the lungs where respiratory gas exchange occurs
single tube with C rings of cartilage
paired tubes with rings of cartilage
three in the right lung; two in the left; plates of cartilage
about ten in each lung, small amounts of cartilage; smooth muscle dominates
many small tubes of less than 1 mm in diameter; smooth muscle only in the walls; no cartilage
air moves into the lungs because
the gas pressure in the lungs becomes lower than the outside pressure as the diaphragm contracts
the movement of air into and out of the alveoli during a particular time is known as
the movement of air into and out of the lungs is known as
the tissue that lines the trachea:
pseudostratified columnar epithelium
the _____ controls the respiratory rate
_____ pressure keeps the air spaces in the lung open