2: Alcoholism 3D Flashcards Preview

CLASP: Alcohol 2017/18 > 2: Alcoholism 3D > Flashcards

Flashcards in 2: Alcoholism 3D Deck (53)
Loading flashcards...
1

Name three signs of chronic alcoholism you may see upon general examination of a patient.

Palmar erythema

Dupuytren's contracture

Caput medusae

 

2

Acutely intoxicated patients are prone to falls - what brain injury can this cause?

Subdural haematomas - bleeding in the subdural space

3

What is Vitamin B1 also known as?

Thiamine

4

Give two other names for Thiamine deficiency.

Beriberi

Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome

5

What are the three common symptoms of Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome?

Ataxia (unsteadiness)

Abnormal eye movements

Impaired consciousness / memory loss

6

What is the name given to behaviour in which patients make up stories to disguise their memory loss?

Confabulation

7

Thiamine deficiency caused by alcoholism can also cause peripheral neuropathy - why?

What signs of peripheral neuropathy may patients present with?

Thiamine is responsible for maintaining peripheral nerves

Pain

Wrist drop

Foot drop

 

8

In the rare cases that the vagus nerve is affected by thiamine deficiency, what may patients present with?

Arrythmias

Congestive heart failure

9

Alcohol is a smooth muscle relaxant - what are three physiological consequences of this?

Opening of gastroesophageal sphincter

Snoring

Suppression of cough and gag reflexes

10

Relaxation of smooth muscle combined with loss of consciousness may lead to what respiratory disease in acutely intoxicated patients?

Aspiration pneumonia

11

Material is usually aspirated through the (left / right) main bronchus.

right main bronchus

12

Aspiration of foreign material into the lungs leads to ___ ___ and ___.

acute inflammation (pneumonitis)

infection

13

What are the most common sites for aspiration pneumonia?

Right middle lobe

Right lower lobe

depends on patient position at the time

14

Which inflammatory cells will be seen under the microscope of an aspiration pneumonia biopsy?

Neutrophils

15

Alcohol reduces the force of cardiac contraction - it is a ___ ___ agent.

negative inotropic agent

16

What happens to compensate for the negative inotropic effect of alcohol?

Heart rate increases - tachycardia

Common sensation the morning after binge drinking

17

What heart disease is associated with chronic alcoholism?

Dilated cardiomyopathy

18

Dilated cardiomyopathy presents as a big, heavy heart with ___ atrial/ventricular thickness.

normal

19

Dilated cardiac muscle is a bit crap at contracting - what does this put patients at risk of?

Arrythmias

Heart failure

20

What is the thiamine deficiency disease associated with cardiac arrythmias and heart failure in chronic alcoholics?

Wet beri beri

21

What is the initial liver disease seen in patients after one or two days of heavy drinking?

Alcoholic fatty liver disease

or steatosis

22

The accumulation of intracellular fat seen in AFLD is (reversible / irreversible).

reversible

23

Give four reasons for the accumulation of intracellular fat seen in AFLD.

1. More fatty acids delivered to liver

2. Alcohol converts NAD > NADH, stimulating lipid synthesis

3. Fatty acid oxidation is reduced

4. Reduced fat export by tubulins

24

What is the technical name for the accumulation of fat in hepatocytes?

Steatosis

25

What disease will be seen in a patient's liver after 3-4 weeks of heavy drinking?

Alcoholic steatohepatitis

i.e fat accumulation AND inflammation

26

In alcoholic steatohepatitis, the direct toxicity of alcohol triggers ___ ___.

acute inflammation

27

What are three symptoms of alcoholic steatohepatitis?

Fever

Jaundice

Tenderness

28

Acute inflammatory cells

Ballooning

Mallory bodies

are all seen under the microscope in alcoholic steatohepatitis. What are they?

Lymphocytes

Fat inclusions in hepatocytes

Damaged intermediate filaments - stain dark pink

29

What occurs in the liver after many years of heavy drinking?

Cirrhosis

30

Cirrhosis is (reversible / permanent) liver damage.

permanent