Which cells deposit scar tissue around hepatocytes in a cirrhotic liver?
Which protein makes up the scar tissue deposited by ___ cells in a cirrhotic liver?
Where specifically in the liver is collagen deposited during cirrhosis?
What is left behind afterwards?
Space of Disse
Islands of functioning hepatocytes surrounded by bands of scar tissue
Why do the "islands" of functioning hepatocytes work poorly in cirrhosis?
Reduced capacity to receive blood and metabolise the chemicals in it
Toxic waste builds up
Blood flow through cirrhotic liver is (good / poor).
Where is blood redirected if the liver is cirrhotic?
What are some signs of portal hypertension?
Caput medusae and spider naevi
Alcohol suppresses gluconeogenesis. What disease does this cause, which can be particularly dangerous in diabetics?
Alcohol ___ the gastric mucosa.
What happens to the rate of gastric emptying when the stomach is exposed to high concentrations of alcohol?
Rate of gastric emptying decreases
Why does the rate of gastric emptying decrease when the stomach is exposed to high concentrations of alcohol?
To reduce the rate of alcohol absorption by the small bowel
What name is given to the condition in which stress associated with vomiting causes a mucosal tear in the epithelium of the GO junction?
What is Boerhaave syndrome?
A full-thickness tear in the oesophageal wall
Explain the development of Barrett's oesophagus in a chronic alcoholic.
1. Alcohol relaxes smooth muscle (i.e lower oesophageal sphincter)
2. Reflux of acidic liquid (sensation of heartburn)
3. Damage to squamous epithelium
4. Repeated insults
5. Metaplasia: stratified squamous > columnar
Patients with Barrett's oesophagus have increased chances of developing which type of oesophageal cancer?
Oesophageal varices are caused by portal hypertension secondary to which liver disease?
What is a varix?
Abnormally dilated vein
Oesophageal varices are prone to ___ causing massive haematemesis.
What are the common causes of acute pancreatitis?
In pancreatitis, enzymes like lipase prematurely activate and digest cells in the pancreas - what is this process called?
What is intestinal epithelium?
Columnar epithelium with goblet cells
In pancreatitis, enzymes come into contact with fat and turn it into "soap". What is this process called?
What is the difference between Wernicke's syndrome and Korsakoff's syndrome?
Wernicke - Walking - ataxia, abnormal eye movements
Korsakoff - memory loss, confabulation