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Flashcards in 2: Alcoholism 3D Deck (53)
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31

Which cells deposit scar tissue around hepatocytes in a cirrhotic liver?

Ito cells

32

Which protein makes up the scar tissue deposited by ___ cells in a cirrhotic liver?

Collagen

Ito cells

33

Where specifically in the liver is collagen deposited during cirrhosis?

What is left behind afterwards?

Space of Disse

Islands of functioning hepatocytes surrounded by bands of scar tissue

34

Why do the "islands" of functioning hepatocytes work poorly in cirrhosis?

Reduced capacity to receive blood and metabolise the chemicals in it

Toxic waste builds up

35

Blood flow through cirrhotic liver is (good / poor).

poor

36

Where is blood redirected if the liver is cirrhotic?

Oesophageal veins

Splenic vein

Anorectal veins

Superficial veins

37

What are some signs of portal hypertension?

Oesophageal varices

Splenomegaly

Rectal varices

Caput medusae and spider naevi

38

Alcohol suppresses gluconeogenesis. What disease does this cause, which can be particularly dangerous in diabetics?

Hypoglycaemia

39

Alcohol ___ the gastric mucosa.

irritates

40

What happens to the rate of gastric emptying when the stomach is exposed to high concentrations of alcohol?

Rate of gastric emptying decreases

41

Why does the rate of gastric emptying decrease when the stomach is exposed to high concentrations of alcohol?

To reduce the rate of alcohol absorption by the small bowel

42

What name is given to the condition in which stress associated with vomiting causes a mucosal tear in the epithelium of the GO junction?

Mallory-Weiss tear

43

What is Boerhaave syndrome?

A full-thickness tear in the oesophageal wall

44

Explain the development of Barrett's oesophagus in a chronic alcoholic.

1. Alcohol relaxes smooth muscle (i.e lower oesophageal sphincter)

2. Reflux of acidic liquid (sensation of heartburn)

3. Damage to squamous epithelium

4. Repeated insults

5. Metaplasia: stratified squamous > columnar

45

Patients with Barrett's oesophagus have increased chances of developing which type of oesophageal cancer?

Adenocarcinoma

46

Oesophageal varices are caused by portal hypertension secondary to which liver disease?

Cirrhosis

47

What is a varix?

Abnormally dilated vein

48

Oesophageal varices are prone to ___ causing massive haematemesis.

rupture

49

What are the common causes of acute pancreatitis?

GET SMASHED

Gallstones

Ethanol

Trauma

Steroids

Mumps

Autoimmune

Scorpion stings

Hyperlipidaemia

ERCP

Drugs

50

In pancreatitis, enzymes like lipase prematurely activate and digest cells in the pancreas - what is this process called?

Fat necrosis

51

What is intestinal epithelium?

Columnar epithelium with goblet cells

52

In pancreatitis, enzymes come into contact with fat and turn it into "soap". What is this process called?

Saponification

53

What is the difference between Wernicke's syndrome and Korsakoff's syndrome?

Wernicke - Walking - ataxia, abnormal eye movements

Korsakoff - memory loss, confabulation