Flashcards in 4) Health Inequalities Deck (20):
What methods can be used to measure health in different groups?
How can socioeconomic position be measured?
Using Census data to calculate Socio-economic classification based on occupation (8 groups)
Also can calculate index of deprivation
What trends are there with health and socioeconomic conditions?
More deprived a person is, larger proportion of their life will be spent in ill health and more likely they will die at a younger age
What are the 6 explanations for health inequalities?
What is the artefact explanation of health inequality?
Health inequalities are evident due to the way statistics are collected e.g. people self promote class on census
What are the limitations of the artefact explanation?
Data problems would lead to underestimation of inequalities
What is the social selection explanation of health inequality?
Sick individuals move down social hierarchy, healthy individual move up. Chronically ill more likely to be disadvantaged
What are the limitations of the social selection explanation?
Social selection only makes minor contribution
Diseases related to SE conditions often in children who cant move in hierarchy
What is the behavioural-cultural explanation of health inequality?
Ill health is due to people's choices, knowledge and goals
Disadvantaged backgrounds = more health damaging behaviours
What are the limitations of the behavioural-cultural explanation?
Behaviours are outcomes of social processes, not simply individual choice
'Choices' may be difficult or rational for those in adverse conditions
What is the materialist explanation of health inequality?
Inequalities arise from differential access to material resources e.g. low income, unemployment
Accumulation of factors across life course
What is the psychosocial explanation of health inequality?
Psychosocial pathways acts in addition to direct effects of living standards
Some stressors are distributed on social gradient e.g. job security, neg. life events
What is the income distribution explanation of health inequality?
Relative (not average) income affects health. Countries with greater income inequalities have greater health inequalities
How are the income distribution and psychosocial explanations linked?
Increased income inequality = increased social evaluative threat = increased stress = poorer health
Why is it difficult to measure access to healthcare?
Only measure who uses it, not those that want to but can't access it
What is inequality?
When things are different
What is inequity?
Inequalities that are unfair and avoidable
What is the link between deprived areas and access to types of healthcare?
More deprived areas have a higher use of GP and emergency services but under use of preventive and specialist services
What are the reasons that more deprived areas have high rates of GP use by under use of preventative services?
Tendency to manage health as a series of crises
Normalisation of ill health
Only see services if visibly ill
GP allows access to social support
Easy accessible services