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Flashcards in 4) Health Inequalities Deck (20):
1

What methods can be used to measure health in different groups?

Life expectancy
Mortality
Census
Self report
Patient records

2

How can socioeconomic position be measured?

Using Census data to calculate Socio-economic classification based on occupation (8 groups)
Also can calculate index of deprivation

3

What trends are there with health and socioeconomic conditions?

More deprived a person is, larger proportion of their life will be spent in ill health and more likely they will die at a younger age

4

What are the 6 explanations for health inequalities?

Artefact
Social selection
Behavioural-cultural
Materialist
Psychosocial
Income distribution

5

What is the artefact explanation of health inequality?

Health inequalities are evident due to the way statistics are collected e.g. people self promote class on census

6

What are the limitations of the artefact explanation?

Discredited
Data problems would lead to underestimation of inequalities

7

What is the social selection explanation of health inequality?

Sick individuals move down social hierarchy, healthy individual move up. Chronically ill more likely to be disadvantaged

8

What are the limitations of the social selection explanation?

Social selection only makes minor contribution
Diseases related to SE conditions often in children who cant move in hierarchy

9

What is the behavioural-cultural explanation of health inequality?

Ill health is due to people's choices, knowledge and goals
Disadvantaged backgrounds = more health damaging behaviours

10

What are the limitations of the behavioural-cultural explanation?

Behaviours are outcomes of social processes, not simply individual choice
'Choices' may be difficult or rational for those in adverse conditions

11

What is the materialist explanation of health inequality?

Inequalities arise from differential access to material resources e.g. low income, unemployment
Accumulation of factors across life course

12

What is the psychosocial explanation of health inequality?

Psychosocial pathways acts in addition to direct effects of living standards
Some stressors are distributed on social gradient e.g. job security, neg. life events

13

What is the income distribution explanation of health inequality?

Relative (not average) income affects health. Countries with greater income inequalities have greater health inequalities

14

How are the income distribution and psychosocial explanations linked?

Increased income inequality = increased social evaluative threat = increased stress = poorer health

15

Why is it difficult to measure access to healthcare?

Only measure who uses it, not those that want to but can't access it

16

What is inequality?

When things are different

17

What is inequity?

Inequalities that are unfair and avoidable

18

What is the link between deprived areas and access to types of healthcare?

More deprived areas have a higher use of GP and emergency services but under use of preventive and specialist services

19

What are the reasons that more deprived areas have high rates of GP use by under use of preventative services?

Tendency to manage health as a series of crises
Normalisation of ill health
Only see services if visibly ill
GP allows access to social support
Easy accessible services

20

What diversity factors relate to health inequalities?

Ethnicity, gender, age, homelessness