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Flashcards in A&P Deck (89)
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1

Stages of Intramembranous Ossification

Ossification center appears in fibrous CT membrane
Bone matrix is secreted within the fibrous membrane
Woven bone & periosteum form
Bone collar of compact bone forms/red marrow appears

2

Stages of Endochondral Ossification

Formation of bone collar
Cavitation of the hyaline cartilage
Spongy bone formation
Formation of medullary cavity; appearance of secondary ossification centers
Ossification of the epiphyses

3

3 Functional Zones of Postnatal Bone Growth

Growth
Transformation
Osteogenic development

4

Growth Zone of Long Bone Growth

Cartilage cells undergo mitosis
Pushes epiphysis away from diaphysis

5

Transformation Zone of Long Bone Growth

Older cells enlarge
Matrix becomes calcified
Cartilage cells die
Matrix begins to deteriorate

6

Osteogenic Zone of Long Bone Growth

New bone formation occurs

7

Growth in Length of Long Bones

Cartilage continually grows and is replaced by bone

8

Remodeling of Long Bones

Bone is resorbed & added by appositional growth

9

Hormonal Regulation of Bone Growth

Infancy/childhood: GH
Puberty: testosterone & estrogens

10

Testosterone & Estrogens in Bone Growth

Promote growth spurts
Masculinization & feminization of specific parts of the skeleton
Induce epiphyseal plate closure

11

Remodeling Units in Bone Remodeling

Osteoblasts & osteoclasts deposit & resorb bone at periosteal & endosteal surfaces

12

Where does bone deposition occur?

Where bone is injured or added strength is needed

13

Bone Deposition Requirements

Protein
Vitamin C, D, & A
Calcium
Phosphorus
Magnesium
Manganese
Alkaline phosphatase

14

How is bone resorption accomplished?

Osteoclasts

15

What do osteoclasts secrete to resorb bone?

Lysosomal enzymes
Acids

16

What do lysosomal enzymes do during bone resorption?

Digest organic matrix

17

What do acids do during bone resorption?

Convert calcium salts into soluble forms

18

Importance of Ionic Calcium in the Body

Transmission of nerve impulses
Muscle contraction
Blood coagulation
Secretion by glands & nerve cells
Cell division

19

2 Loops that Control Remodeling of Bone

Hormonal mechanism (PTH)
Mechanical & gravitational forces

20

Describe Wolff's Law

Bone grows or remodels in response to the forces or demands place upon it

21

Bone's Response to Mechanical Response

Trabeculae form along lines of stress
Large, bony projections occur where large, active muscles attach

22

How are bone fractures classified?

Position of bone ends after fracture
Completeness of the break
Orientation of bone to the long axis
+/- bone ends penetrate the skin

23

Types of Bone Fractures

Non-displaced
Displaced
Complete
Incomplete
Linear
Transverse
Compound
Simple
Comminuted
Spiral
Depressed
Compression
Epiphyseal
Greenstick

24

Describe a Non-displaced Fracture

Bone ends retain their normal position

25

Describe a Displaced Fracture

Bone ends are out of normal alignment

26

Describe a Complete Fracture

Bone is broken all the way through

27

Describe an Incomplete Fracture

Bone is not broken all the way through

28

Describe a Linear Fracture

Fracture is parallel to the long axis of the bone

29

Describe a Transverse Fracture

Fracture is perpendicular to the long axis of the bone

30

Describe a Compound Fracture (Open)

Bone ends penetrate the skin