Flashcards in Ortho Infections Deck (85)
Why is staph aureus having an increased resistance to antibiotics?
When do bacteria enter the body?
In regards to blood supply, when does the risk of infection increase?
Decreased blood supply
What increases microcirculation & vasodilation?
Warming of the source of infection
How does a traumatic injury & the presence of implants increase the risk of infection?
Periosteal injury, micro/macrovascular compromise
Bacteria have affinity for exposed sites
Form glycocalyx capsule
Impair normal immune function & abx penetration
Factors that Decrease Local Immune Responses
Decreased blood flow
Medications that can Decrease the Local Immune Response
Factors that Decrease the Systemic Immune Response
Renal & liver disease
Diagnostic Test with Musculoskeletal Infections
Culture of fluid or tissue
Presentation of a Musculoskeletal Infection
Refusal to bear weight (esp. children)
Loss of joint motion
Labs to Diagnose Musculoskeletal Infections
CBC with differential
PCR: polymerase chain reaction
When does ESR elevate in infection?
Within 2 days of infection
When does CRP elevate, peak, and return to normal in an infection?
E: within 6 hours
P: 48 hours
Return: 1 week after appropriate treatment
What is the best indicator for diagnosis & monitoring treatment of an infection?
What diagnostic modality has shown to be helpful in peri-prosthetic infections?
Things you can see on Plain Films for Musculoskeletal Infections
Soft tissue swelling
Loss of tissue planes
Bony changes (40+% loos to see)
Other Radiologic Tests to Detect Musculoskeletal Infections
Bone scan: vague
Indium 111 leukocyte nuclear scan
Gallium citrate scan
What diagnostic modality is used frequently for infection?
When do musculoskeletal infections frequently happen?
Describe Hematogenous Osteomyelitis
Osteomyelitis which was transferred by the blood
Desccribe Contiguous Focus Osteomyelitis
Infection caused by a prior infection
Classification of Musculoskeletal Infections that Describes the Anatomic Involvement
Stage 1: medullary
Stage 2: superficial
Stage 3: localized
Stage 4: diffuse
Classification of Musculoskeletal Infections that Describes the Host
Treatment worse than disease
Most Common Sites of Hematogenous Osteomyelitis
May involve 2 vertebrae + disc
Most Common Bug with Hematogenous Osteomyelitis
Most Common Bugs in Vertebral Osteomyelitis
Presentation of Vertebral Osteomyelitis
Pain over area
Possible: meningitis, abscesses
Most Common Reasons for Contiguous-Focus Osteomyelitis without General Vascular Insufficiency
Trauma with direct contact to bone
Infection from soft tissue
Chronic soft tissue infections