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Flashcards in Anatomy 2 Deck (215)
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1

what are the dimples in you back landmarks of

posterior superior iliac spines

2

what is the first palpable spinous process

t1
70% have C7 palpable

3

what are the extrinsic back muscles

attach the back to the pectoral girdle
-levator scapulae
-rhomboids
-trapezius
-latissimus dorsi

4

what mainly innervates the external back muscles

anterior rami of the cervical nerves

5

what innervates the trapezius

accessory nerve

6

what are the intrinsic back muscles

(maintain posture and move spine)
erector spinae (superficial)
transversospinalis (deep)

7

where are transversospinalis found

between the transverse and spinous processes

attach between vertebrae and: rib, skull, another vertebra or the sacrum

8

what is the main role of transversospinalis

stability and rotation of the vertebrae

9

what is the nerve supply of the intrinsic back muscles

segmental - posterior rami branches (cervical, thoracic and lumbar)

10

what happens when the erector spinae contracts unilaterally

lateral flexion

11

what are the curvatures of the vertebral column

cervical lordosis
thoracic kyphosis
lumbar lordosis
sacral kyphosis

12

where in vertebra is the spinal cord

vertebral foramen

13

what is a facet joint

articular processes of adjacent vertebrae

14

what vertebrae is there no intervertebral discs between

C1-2
fused sacrum/ coccyx

15

what makes up the intervertaebral discs

outer fibrous ring- annulus fibrosus
inner doft pulp- nucleus pulposus

16

what is the ligamentum flavum

connects adjacent laminae posterior to the spinal cord

17

what is the posterior longitudinal ligament

narrow, weak, prevents overflexion

18

what does the anterior longitudinal ligament do

strong, broad, prevents over extension of the spine

19

which way are vertebral disc more likely to herniate

posteriorly as posterior longitudinal ligament weaker than anterior

20

what does the supraspinous ligament do

connects TIPS of spinous processes
strong

21

what does the interspinous ligament do

connects superior and inferior surfaces of adjacent spinous processes
weak

22

what goes through the transverse foramen

vertebral arteries (off subclavian)

23

which vertebrae have bifid spinal processes

cervical

24

describe the anatomy of C1 (atlas)

does not have a body or spinous process (post and ant arch instead)

25

which vertebrae has an ondontoid process

C2- axis

26

what movement at the atlanto-occipital joint

flexion and extension of neck
a little lateral flexion and rotation

27

what joint type is atlanto axial

synovial

28

what movement at the atlanto-axial joint

rotation mainly

29

where does the spinal cord start and finish

foramen magnum (continuous with medulla oblongata)
ends vertebral level (L1/2) at conus medullaris

30

what is the cauda equina

spinal nerve roots from L2 to Co1 that descend to the numbered vertebrae