Anatomy 2 Flashcards Preview

Neurology > Anatomy 2 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Anatomy 2 Deck (215):
1

what are the dimples in you back landmarks of

posterior superior iliac spines

2

what is the first palpable spinous process

t1
70% have C7 palpable

3

what are the extrinsic back muscles

attach the back to the pectoral girdle
-levator scapulae
-rhomboids
-trapezius
-latissimus dorsi

4

what mainly innervates the external back muscles

anterior rami of the cervical nerves

5

what innervates the trapezius

accessory nerve

6

what are the intrinsic back muscles

(maintain posture and move spine)
erector spinae (superficial)
transversospinalis (deep)

7

where are transversospinalis found

between the transverse and spinous processes

attach between vertebrae and: rib, skull, another vertebra or the sacrum

8

what is the main role of transversospinalis

stability and rotation of the vertebrae

9

what is the nerve supply of the intrinsic back muscles

segmental - posterior rami branches (cervical, thoracic and lumbar)

10

what happens when the erector spinae contracts unilaterally

lateral flexion

11

what are the curvatures of the vertebral column

cervical lordosis
thoracic kyphosis
lumbar lordosis
sacral kyphosis

12

where in vertebra is the spinal cord

vertebral foramen

13

what is a facet joint

articular processes of adjacent vertebrae

14

what vertebrae is there no intervertebral discs between

C1-2
fused sacrum/ coccyx

15

what makes up the intervertaebral discs

outer fibrous ring- annulus fibrosus
inner doft pulp- nucleus pulposus

16

what is the ligamentum flavum

connects adjacent laminae posterior to the spinal cord

17

what is the posterior longitudinal ligament

narrow, weak, prevents overflexion

18

what does the anterior longitudinal ligament do

strong, broad, prevents over extension of the spine

19

which way are vertebral disc more likely to herniate

posteriorly as posterior longitudinal ligament weaker than anterior

20

what does the supraspinous ligament do

connects TIPS of spinous processes
strong

21

what does the interspinous ligament do

connects superior and inferior surfaces of adjacent spinous processes
weak

22

what goes through the transverse foramen

vertebral arteries (off subclavian)

23

which vertebrae have bifid spinal processes

cervical

24

describe the anatomy of C1 (atlas)

does not have a body or spinous process (post and ant arch instead)

25

which vertebrae has an ondontoid process

C2- axis

26

what movement at the atlanto-occipital joint

flexion and extension of neck
a little lateral flexion and rotation

27

what joint type is atlanto axial

synovial

28

what movement at the atlanto-axial joint

rotation mainly

29

where does the spinal cord start and finish

foramen magnum (continuous with medulla oblongata)
ends vertebral level (L1/2) at conus medullaris

30

what is the cauda equina

spinal nerve roots from L2 to Co1 that descend to the numbered vertebrae

31

where is the epidural space

outside the dura in the spinal chord

32

where is anaesthesia injected in caudal anaesthesia

sacral hiatus

33

where is epidural anaesthesia inserted

subarachnoid space surrounding cauda equina where vertebrae arent fused (l3/4 interface)

34

where does the subarachnoid space end

L2

35

when do you not perform a lumbar puncture

when there is raised ICP

36

what does the needle go through in an epidural

supraspinous ligament
interspinous ligament
ligamentum flavum
epidural space (fat and veins)

37

what does the needle go through in a lumbar puncture

supraspinous ligament
interspinous ligament
ligamentum flavum
epidural space (fat and veins)
dura mater
arachnoid mater
(reaches subarachnoid space)

38

what is a laminectomy

removal or one or more spinous processes and the adjacent lamina

used to access spinal cord/ spinal roots or to relieve spinal cord or nerve roots (tumour, herniated disc, bone hypertrophy)

39

as spinal nerves pass through the intervertebral foramina why is the posterior root enlarged

by the dorsal (posterior) root ganglion

40

what is the conus medullaris

where the spinal cord terminates

41

why is the posterior root enlarged as it leaves the intervetebral foramina

enlarged by dorsal root ganglion

42

what suspends the spinal cord in the canal

denticulate ligament

43

what is in the white matter of the spinal cord

axons, glial cells, blood vessels

44

what is in the grey matter of the spinal cord

soma, cell processes, synapses, glia and blood vessels

45

what is the lateral horn

at levels T1-L2 there is a smaller horn which contains the preganglionic sympathetic neurones

46

what is the blood supply of the spinal cord

3 longitudinal arteries (1 ant 2 post) that original from vertebral arteries
segmental arteries
radial arteries (travel along roots)

venous has longitudinal and segmental vessels also in epidural space

47

the right side of the cortex represents which side of the body

left

48

where is the primary somatosensory cortex

post central gyrus (poSt = Sensory)

49

describe the dorsal column/ medial lemniscus

ascending tract for fine touch and proprioception

enter dorsal column
sypanse in medulla @ nucleus gracillus- where it crosses to midline
goes to thalamus
the PostCG

50

describe the spinothalamic tract

ascending tract for pain, temp and deep pressure

synapse immediately in posterior horn and ascended on CONTRAlateral side
synapses in thalamus
PostCG

fibres cross Segmentally= Switch Sides Straight away as they enter cord= Spinothalamic

51

what is the primary motor cortex

pre central gyrus

52

describe the corticospinal tract

descending tract for fine precise movement (esp digits)

cortex PreCG
85% of fibres cross at the decussation of the pyramids in the medulla (forming the lateral CST)
other 15% form ventral CST which cross segmentally (at level they leave cord)

53

what are pyramidal tracts

corticospinal tract forms these on the anterior surface of the medulla- 85% of fibres cross here in medulla

54

what is the internal capsule

white matter strip where lots of sensory information (e.g. CST) travels through)

55

what happens if there is a CVS in the internal capsule

lack of descending control of the corticospinal tract which results in a spastic paralysis with hyperflexion of the upper limbs = decorticate posturing.

56

describe the tecto spinal tract

begins in tectum (post. mid brain)
dorsal tegmental decussation
mediates head and neck reflec to visual stimuli

57

decsribe the reticulospinal tract

Network of nuclei in the brainstem that control breathing, cardiac

58

describe the vestibulospinal tract

Fibres originate in the vestibular nuclei of pons and medulla

project down cord ipsilaterally

excite anti gravity extensor muscles

59

in general what motor influence do fibres from the pons and medulla do

Fibres originating in pons facilitate extensor movements and inhibit flexor movements, while those originating in the medulla do the opposite

60

when do you get decerebrate regidity and paraplegia in extension

Lesions of the brainstem at the level of the midbrain can result in a lack of descending cortical control of the vestibulosponal tract. This leads to domination of extensor muscle tone and hyperextended spastic paralysis.

61

how would a lateral hemisection of the cors (brown sequard) affect:
motor
reflexes
sensation

motor- ipsilateral paralysis (CST crosses (85%) at medulla)

reflexes- ipsilateral

sensation:
-ipsilateral loss vibration and proprioception (MLS crosses at medulla)
-contralateral loss pof pain and temp (STT crosses segmentally)

62

how are the cranial nerves numbered

form anterior to posterior and medial to lateral on where they connect with CNS

63

what is in the optic canal

optic nerve and ophthalmic artery

64

what is the path of CN I

olfactory mucosa
cribiform plate of ethmoid
anterior cranial fossa
olfactor bulb (synapse)
olfactory tract
cortical areas

65

what is the path of CN II

retina
optic nerve
optic canal (middle cranial fossa)
around pituitary stalk
optic chiasm
forms optic tract
diencephalon

66

how do you test CN I

smell a familiar smell while covering the contralateral nostril

67

how do you test CN II

acuity (snellens)
colour (ishihara)
fields
relfexes (pupillary light)
fundoscopy

68

what is the path of CN III

midbrain (mesencephalon)
lateral wall of cavernous sinus
superior orbital fissure
orbit
(parasympathetics (pupil constriction) synapse in cilliary ganglion)

69

how do you test CN III parasympathetics

pupillary constriction

70

what is the path if CN IV

midbrain (mesencephalon) (exits via dorsal surface)
lateral wall of the cavernous sinus
superior orbital fissure
orbit
(superior oblique)

71

what is the path of CN VI

pontomedullary junction
within cavernous sinus
superior orbital fissure
orbit
(lateral rectus muscle)

72

what is in the cavernous sinus

internal carotid artery
CN III, IV, V (V1 and V2) and VI

73

how do you test the SO

look down and IN

74

how do you test IO

look up and in

75

how do you test superior and inferior rectus

SR up and out
IR down and out

76

what is the path of CN VIII

axons from cochlear and vestibular apparatus
internal accoustic meatus (post cranial fossa)
travels posteromedially to the pontomedullary junction

77

how do you test CN VIII

rinne and weber tests

78

what is the function of CN XI

motor to sternocleidomastoid and trapezius

79

what is the path of CN XI

cervical spinal cord
ascends through foramen magnum
jugular foramen in post cranial fossa
SCM (deep surface)
posterior triangle
trapezius and SCM

80

how do you test CN XI

shrug shoulders
flex neck and tern to opposite side

81

what is the path of CN XII

rootlets lateral to the pyramids of the medulla oblongata
hypoglossal canal (posterior cranial fossa)
descends lateral to carotid sheath
at hyoid turns anteriorly towards tongue

82

what does CN XII innervate

all the nerves ending in glossus except palatoglossus (vagus)

83

how do you test CN XII

Ask patient to stick tongue straight out
If both CNXII’s are functioning normally the tongue tip remains in the midline on protrusion
If there is unilateral CN XII pathology the tongue tip will point towards the side of the injured nerve

84

what are the modalities of CN V

V1 sensory
V2 sensory
V3 sensory and motor

85

what is the path of CN V

pos
inferior to tentorium cerebelli
cranial foramina:
-V1 SOF
-V2 foramen rotundum
-V3 foramen ovale

86

what does CN V1 supply

- The upper eyelid
- The cornea (corneal reflex)
- All the conjunctiva
- Skin of the root/bridge/tip of the nose

deep sensory:
Bones & soft tissues of the orbit (except the orbital floor & lower eyelid)
Upper anterior nasal cavity
Paranasal sinuses (except the maxillary sinus)
Anterior & posterior cranial fossae

87

what does CN V2 supply

- The skin of the lower eyelid
- The skin over the maxilla
- The skin of the ala of the nose
- The skin/mucosa of the upper lip

deep sensory:
Lower posterior nasal cavity
Maxilla & maxillary sinus
Floor of the nasal cavity/palate
Maxillary teeth & associated soft tissues (gingivae & mucosae)

88

what does CN V3 supply

- Skin over the mandible and temporomandibular joint
(apart from the angle of the mandible – supplied by C2,3 spinal nerves)

deep sensory:
Middle cranial fossa
Mandible
Anterior 2/3rds of the tongue
Floor of the mouth
Buccal mucosa
Mandibular teeth & associated soft tissues

89

what is the great auricular nerve and what does it do

(C2,3) – a sensory branch of the cervical plexus
Supplies: - The skin over the angle of the mandible & some of the external ear

90

what motor action does CN V3 have

jaw closing- masseter, temporalis, medial pterygoid

jaw opening- lateral pterygoid

tensor veli palatini
tensor tympani

91

how do you test CN V

sensory
Ask the patient to close their eyes
Gently brush the skin in each dermatome with a fine tip of cotton wool
Ask the patient to tell you when they feel their skin being touched
Compare the 2 sides

motor
Palpate the strength of contraction of the masseter & temporalis by asking patient to clench their teeth
Ask the patient to open their jaw against resistance

92

what is the path of CN VII

pontomedullary junction
internal acoustic meatus (into petrous part of temporal bone)
stylomastoid foramen
parotid gland/ muscles of facial expression

93

what does the chorda tympani do

Taste buds of the anterior 2/3rds of the tongue
Parasympathetic supply to the submandibular & sublingual glands (salivation).

(branch of CN VII)

94

what supplies the stapedius

CN VII

95

what does stapedius do

Reduces stapes movement to protect the internal ear from excessive noise

96

what does CN VII do

sensory, motor, parasymp

motor- muscles of facial expression, stapedius

sensory- taste ant 2/3rds of tongue (c. tympani)

para- sublingual, submandibular, lacrimal and mucous glands

97

how do you test CN VII

raise eyebrows- frontalis
close eyes tightly- orbicularis oculi
smile- elevators of lips
puff out cheeks and hold air- orbicularis oris

98

what is the path of CN IX

medulla oblongata
jugular foramen
descends towards pharynx and mouth


To the :
stylopharyngeus muscle
parotid gland
pharyngeal mucosa
carotid body and sinus
posterior 1/3rd of tongue

99

what does CN IX do

General sensory to:

The posterior 1/3rd of the tongue
The mucosa of most of the nasopharynx and oropharynx
The mucosa of some of the laryngopharynx (some overlap with CN X territory)
The palatine tonsil
The eustachian tube
The middle ear cavity

Special sensory to:
The vallate papillae (with taste buds) of the posterior 1/3rd of the tongue

Visceral afferent to the carotid sinus baroreceptors & the carotid body chemoreceptors

Somatic motor
(Stylopharyngeus)

Parasympathetic (secretomotor) to the parotid gland (salivary)

100

how can you test CN IX

gag reflex

101

what is the path of the vagus nerve

lateral aspect of medulla oblongata
jugular foramen
supplies between palate and midgut
-runs within carotid sheath
-posterior to and between the common carotid artery and IJV
-gives of recurrent laryngeal branch
-right CN X lies on trachea
-left CN X lies on aortic arch
-both pass posterior to lung root and onto oesophagus
-pass through diaphragm with oesophagus at T10

both pass onto surface of stomach
branches pass to celiac and superior mesenteric ganglia follows GI arteries

102

what is the path of the two recurrent laryngeal nerves

Left recurrent laryngeal nerve curves under arch of the aorta
Right recurrent laryngeal curves under the right subclavian artery

103

how do you test CN X

Ask patient to say ‘ahhhhh’ – also tests CNV3
(MUSCLES OF PALATE)
Motor function
Uvula should lift straight up in midline
Unilateral pathology will pull uvula away from the non-functioning side

swallow water

listen to speech

104

what are the five layers of the scalp

SCALP
s= skin
C= connective tissue (contains arteries)
A= aponeurosis
L= loose connective tissue
P= pericranium (periosteum of the skull)

105

what do skull sutures do in skull fractures

help prevent fractures spreading

106

what bones make up the pterion

frontal, parietal, temporal, sphenoid

107

what artery courses over the deep aspect of the pterion

the middle meningeal artery

108

what is meningitis

inflammation (usually bacterial or viral infection) of the meninges

109

what supplies the sensory innervation to the dura mater

CN V

110

what meninges enlcoses the dural venous sinuses

dura mater

111

what is the diaphragm sellae

sheet of dura mater that forms a roof over the pituitary fossa

112

what is the tentorium cerebelli

sheet of dura mater that tents over the cerebellum
attaches to the ridges of the petrous temporal bones
has a central gap to allow the brainstem to pass through

113

what is the falx cerebri

dura mater midline structure that attaches to deep aspect of skull:
-from crista galli of the ethmoid bone anteriorly
-internal aspect of the sagittal suture
- to internal occipital protuberance posteriorly

it separates the left and right cerebral hemispheres

blends with tentorium cerebelli

114

what do cerebral veins do

drain venous blood from the brain into the dural venous sinuses

115

where is the confluence of dural venous sinuses

midline at internal occipital protuberance

116

what lines dural venous sinuses

endothelium

117

what is the danger triangle

are if face where there is connection between superficial facial veins and deep facial veins - infection here can spread backwards to cranium

118

what foramen does the vertebral artery go through

transverse foraminae in vertebrae then foramen mangum

119

how does the internal carotid enter the cranial cavity

cranial canal

120

what does the external carotid supply

neck face and scalp

121

what does the right anterior cerebral artery supply

medial aspect of the right cerebral hemisphere

122

what links the anterior cerebral arteries

anterior communicating artery

123

what does the left middle cerebral artery supply

lateral aspect of the left cerebral hemisphere

124

what does the right posterior cerebral artery supply

posterior aspect of the right cerebral hemisphere including the visual cortex

125

what links the posterior cerebral arteries to the middle cerebral arteries

posterior communicating arteries

126

where is the circle of willis

in subarachnoid space
inferior to midbrain- close to pituitary stalk and optic chiasm

127

how much CSF is made each day and where

400-500mls
choroid plexus of the ventricles
reabsorbed via arachnoid granulations

128

what level does the subarachnoid space end

S2

129

where is the 3rd venticle

midline within the diencephalon

130

where is the 4th ventricle

between the cerebellum and pons

131

how does the CSF get from the lateral ventricles to the 3rd ventricle

foraminae of munro

132

where is CSF in the spinal cord

in subarachnoid space around it ans in central canal

133

what is hydrocephalus

when excessive production, obstruction to flow or inadequate reabsorption causes increased CSF volume

134

what is a ventricular peritonieal shunt

when a shunt catheter is tunnelled beneath the skin of the neck and chest and then sited within the peritoneal cavity to help hydrocephalus

135

where do cerebral arteries go between

brain to dural sinuses

136

where are the middle meningeal arteries

between bone and dura

137

what is an extradural haemorrhage

bleed between brain ans dura (middle meningeal artery- trauma to pterion)

138

what is a subdural haemorrhage

a bleed separates the dura from the arachnoid (cerebral veins- falls in the elderly)

139

what is a subarachnoid haemorrhage

bleed in to the csf of the subarachnoid space (ruptured circle of willis 'berry aneurysm'- congenital)

140

what is an uncal herniation

the uncus (medial part) of the temporal
lobe herniates inferior to the tentorium cerebelli

141

describe an infratentorial herniation

can be upward, downward or tonsillar:
-the cerebellar tonsils herniate into the foramen magnum

142

what does compression of the oculomotor nerve by an uncal herniation cause

ipsilateral fixed dilated pupil (blown pupil)

143

what is the basic function of the cerebellum and basal ganglia

adjust and coordinate movement

144

what is the flocculonodular lobe

ear like lobe on the cerbellum

145

how is the cerebellum attached to the brainstem

via 3 penduncles- middle, superior and inferior- made of white matter

146

what is the vermis

centre of the cerebellum

147

how does the cerebellum talk to the brainstem and thalamus

via deep cerebellar nuclei (deep grey matter)

148

what are the three layers of the cerebellum

outer- molecular (lots of neurones)
middle- purkinje (output cells- talks to brainstem)
inner- granular (>50% of neurones)

149

what are the afferet projections to the cerebellum (inputs)

spinal cord (from somatic proprioceptors and pressure receptors)
cerebral cortex (relayed via the pons)
vetsibular apparatus (via vestibular nuclei)

all enter via cerebellar peduncles and project mainly to granular layer

150

what are the efferent projections of the cerebellum (outputs)

(only output is via axons of purkinje cells which synapse at deep cerebellar nuclei and contribute to coordinating the functions of all the motor tracts of brain stem and spinal cord)
-corticospinal
-vestibulospinal
-rubrospinal

151

where do most efferent axons of the deep cerebellar nuclei cross the midline and synapse

in the thalamus- which in turns send fibres to the motor cortex

152

what side if the body do the cerebral hemispheres influence

ipsilateral (lesions will have ipsilateral affects)

153

what will a unilateral hemispheric lesion cause

intention tremor, unsteady gait
NO weakness or sensory loss

154

what does bilateral cerebellar dysfunction cause

slowed, slurred speech (dysarthia)
bilateral incoordination of arms
staggering, wide based gait (cerebellar ataxia)

155

how does alcohol affect the cerebellar

causes bilateral cerebellar hemisphere dysfunction

156

what will a midline lesion in the cerebellum cause

disturbance of postural control

157

what does the vermis control

automonic information

158

what are the functions of the basal ganglia

facilitate purposeful movement
inhibit unwanted movement
role in posture and muscle tone

159

what are the 5 basal ganglia

1. caudate nucleus
2. putamen
3. globus pallidus
4. subthalamic nucleus
5. substantia nigra

1+2 = striatum
1+2+3 = corpus striatum
2+3 = lenticular nucleus

160

what are basal ganglia

a number of small masses of grey matter located near the base of each cerebral hemisphere

161

what is the direct pathway of the basal ganglia

Enhances outflow of thalamus, enhancing the desired movement

162

what is the indirect pathway of the basal ganglia

inhibits outflow of thalamus
prevents movement you don't want

163

what side of body to basal ganglia lesoins affect

in contrast to cerebellar lesions affect the contralateral side of the body

164

what DONT lesions of the basal ganglia cause

paralysis
sensory loss
loss of power
ataxia

165

what DO basal ganglia lesions cause

changes in muscle tone
dyskinesias (abnormal involuntary movements):
-temor (sinusoidal movements)
-chorea (rapid, asymmetrical movements, usually distal limb)
-myoclonus (muscle jerks)

166

where is the pathology in parkinsons

generation of dopaminergic neurones of the substatia nigra (direct pathway affected)

167

what are the signs of parkinsons

akineasia, rigidity and resting tremor

168

where is the pathology in huntingtons disease

autosomal dominant disorder causes progressive degeneration of the basal ganglia and cerebral cortex (indirect pathway affected- no inhibition of movement)

169

what are the signs of huntingtons

chorea and progressive dementia

170

list the modality, central connection and function of CN I

sensory
olfactory bulb (only CN to not synapse in thalamus before going to cortex)
innervates olfactory epithelium- olfaction

171

list the modality, central connection and function of CN II

sensory
cc=lateral geniculate nucleus, prectal nucleus
f= vision (innervates retina), pupillary light reflex

172

list the modality, central connection and function of CN III

motor and parasympathetics

motor
CC=oculomotor nucleus
f= eye movements (sup., inf,. medial rectus, inf. oblique), elevate eyelid (LPS)

para
cc=EWN
f= pupillary constriction and accommodation (innervates sphincter pupillae + cilliary muscle via ciliary ganglion)

173

list the modality, central connection and function of CN IV

motor
cc-trochlear nucleus
f- moves up (SO- down and out)
(only CN to exit posteriorly)

174

list the modality, central connection and function of CN V

sensory and motor

sensory
cc- trigeminal sensory nucleus
f- somatosensation (discriminative touch, vibration, pain, temp of face, scalp, cornea, nasal and oral cavities and cranial dural mater) via pontine trigeminal nucleus
proprioception of chewing via mesencephalic nucleus

motor
cc- trigeminal motor nucleus
f- opening and closing mouth (muscles of mastication)
tensor tympani

175

list the modality, central connection and function of CN VI

motor
cc- abducens nucleus
f- move eye (LR)

176

list the modality, central connection and function of CN list the modality, central connection and function of CN

sensory, motor, parasympathetics

sensory
cc- nucleus solitarius
f- taste of ant 2/3rds of tongue (via c. tympani)

motor
cc- facial nucleus
f- facial expression muscles, tenses stapedius

para
cc- superior salivatory nucleus
f- salivation and lacrimation (via submandibular and pterygopalatine ganglia)

177

list the modality, central connection and function of CN list the modality, central connection and function of CN

sensory
cc- vestibular nuclei, cochlear nuclei
f- vestibular sensation and hearing

178

list the modality, central connection and function of CN IX

sensory, motor and para

sensory (2)
1. f- general sensation for pharynx, posterior 1/3rd of tongue, eustachian tube, middle ear
cc- trigeminal sensory nucleus

2. f- taste to post 1/3rd of tongue (chemo and baroreception)
cc- nucleus solitarus

motor
cc- nucleus ambiguus
f- stylopharyngeus muslces (swallowing)

para
cc- inferior salivatory nucleus
f- salivation (parotid gland via otic ganglion)

179

list the modality, central connection and function of CN X

sensory motor and para

sensory (2)
1. general sensation for pharynx, larynx, trachea, oesophagus, external ear
cc- trigeminal sensory nucleus

2. visceral sensation, chemo and baro reception for thoracic and abdominal viscera, aortic bodies and aortic arch
cc- nucleus solitarius

motor
cc- nucleus ambiguis
f- speech and swallowing (soft palate, pharynx, larynx, upper oesophagus)

para
f- innervation of cardiac muscle, smooth muscle and glands or cardiovascular system, resp and GI tracts (thoracic and abdo viscera)
cc- dorsal motor nucleus of vagus

180

list the modality, central connection and function of CN XI

motor
cc- cervical spinal cord
f- SCM and trapezius- movement of head and shoulder

181

list the modality, central connection and function of CN XII

motor
cc- hypoglossal nucleus
f- intrinsic and extrinsic muscles of the tongue (expect palato)

182

what CN dont exit brainstem anteriorly

IV (posterioly) and VIII (laterally)

183

what is the motor input to CNs

corticobulbar tract (part of pyramidal tract)

184

what is the parasymp input into CNs 1973

hypothalamus

185

what are the functions of the reticular formation

Integrate cranial nerve reflexes.
Participate in conduction and modulation of pain.
Influence voluntary movement.
Regulate autonomic activity.
Integrate some basic functions, like respiration and sleep.
Activate the cerebral cortex

186

what CN in myelinated

CN II (optic)

187

where are the nuclei of the motor CNs

midline of the brainstem

188

what CNs share the solitary nucleus

VII, IX, X
(taste and visceral sensory information)

189

what CNs share the superior and inferior salivatory nucleus

CN VII and IX
(parasymp to ganglia of salivary glands and pterygopalatine ganglion)

190

what CNs share the nucleus ambiguus

CN IX and X
(motor efferents to muscles of pharynx, larynx and upper oesophagus)

191

where is the solitary nucleus

extends in a V shape from upper to lower medulla

192

where is the nucleus ambiguus

lower pons/ upper medulla

193

what is the auditory pathway

1. cochlear nerve (spiral ganglion- carries APs from organ of corti to cochlear nuclei in pons)
2. internal accoustic meatus
3. pontomedullary junction (bilateral now)
4. ventral and dorsal cochlear nuclei
5. olivary nucleus (1st synapse- not all synapse here tho for localisation)
6. inferior colliculus (all synapse here)
7. medial geniculate body in thalamus
8. primary auditory cortex

194

why are the suprior olivary and lateral lemniscus nuclei important in the auditory pathway

for locaisation and relays for stapedius and tensor tympani reflexes

195

where is the auditory cortex

temporal superior gyrus

196

what is the vestibular pathway

vestibular nerve
vestibular ganglion
vestibular nuclei
thalamus
cerebral cortex (no primary cortex area)
medial longitudinal fasciculus to CN 3,4,6
6. cerebellum
7. spinal cord via vestibulospinal tract

197

what is the medial longitunidal fasciculus

white matter tract that allows vestibular nuclei to coordinate eye movements

carries both ascending and descending tracts

198

what is tonotopic organisation in the auditory cortec

Fibres carrying information regarding low frequency sound end in the anterolateral part of the auditory cortex

Fibres carrying information regarding high frequency sound end in the posteromedial part of the auditory cortex.

199

what is aphasia

inability to use language

200

what happens if there is damage to brocas area

difficulty in producing language

201

what happens if there is damage to wernickes area

difficulty comprehending language

202

what is the optic pathway

optic nerve
chiasm
optic tract
lateral geniculate nucleus (+superior colliculi)
optic radiation (meyers loop)
visual cortex

203

what part of visual cortex does the lower visual field go to

gyrus superior to the calcarine sulcus

204

what part of visual cortex does the upper visual field go to

gyrus inferior to the calcarine sulcus

205

which visual field goes around meyers loop

upper

206

what part of vision responds to visual stimuli (tracking)

visual cortex

207

what part of vision does movements of command (saccadic)

frontal eye fields

208

what is affected in internuclear ophthalmoplegia

medial longitudinal fasciculus

209

what are the steps of the pupillary light reflex

1.light shone in eye
2. APs reach pretectal nuclei (both sides)
3. edinger-westphal nucleus
4. oculomotor nerves
5. ciliary ganglion
6. pupil constriction (pupillary sphincter)

210

why is the accomoationd reflex different from the pupillary light refelx

as accomodation needs input to EWN and occulomotor nucleus from the visual cortex not just direct pathway

211

what are the steps of the accomodation reflex

optic nerve
lateral geniculate nucleus
visual cortex
pretectal area
EWN
occulomotor nerve
muscles of accomodation (medial rectus, cilliary muscle, sphincter pupillae)

212

for most right handed people where in the brain is dominant for language

left hemisphere

213

what are association fibres

connect cortical sites lying in the same hemisphere

214

what are commisural fibres

connext one hemisphere to the other, usually connecting areas with similar function

215

what are projection fibres

connect hemispheres to deeper structures including thalamus, corpus striatum, brain stem and spinal cord