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Flashcards in Sleep Disorders Deck (28):
1

what is consciousness and unconsciousness

consciousness= awareness of self and environment

unconsciousness= unaware, even when stimulated

2

what is non REM sleep

'deep sleep'
partial muscle relaxation
reduced cerebral blood flow
reduced HR, BP and tidal volumes
slower brain waves

3

what is REM sleep

rapid eye movement sleep
increased brain activity
atonic muscles (profoundly relaxed) except eyes and diaphragm
cerebral blood flow increased impaired thermal regulation

4

what types of dreams do you get in the different types of sleep

REM- narrative dreaming
Non REM- non narrative images

5

when in night do you get the different types of sleep

start of night= Non REM
end of night= REM

6

which type of sleep if more important

for adults deep sleep- allows the cortex to recover (protein synthesis, cell division and growth)

for babies REM sleep is more important for brain development

7

what is REM a substitute for in neonates

wakefulness - dreams allow cortex to develop without outside engagement- they sleep for 16 hrs per day

8

what are the three responses needed for sleep onset

homeostatic response (body needs to be tired and have been awake for long enough)
emotional (brain has to be ready for bed)
circadian rhythm (body clock)

9

what is the role of REM sleep

consolidates memory, maintains immunocompetence

10

when are the two circadian sleepiness peaks

4am
2pm

11

what do circadian rhythms control

sleep wake, appetite, body temperature, hormone secretions, alertness

12

how does light affect body clock

retinal ganglion cells (non rod non cone cells) projecting to suprachiasmatic nucleus are very sensitive to a specific bright blue light, this resets body clock

13

how does sleep affect excercise

sleep helps tissue repair
sleep related growth hormone
cell division peaks during sleep

14

when can the cortex rest

only when asleep

15

what are the pre frontal effects of sleep deprivation

irritable and suspicious
visual illusions
microsleeps and concentration lapses
dis inhibited

16

what behaviour is not affected by sleep deprivation

well rehearsed tasks
routine behaviour
logic tasks

17

how much sleep do you need per night

7-8 hrs

18

whats the best way to nap

for 15 mins at 2pm= 90 mins overnight

19

what are parasomnias

sleep disorders

20

what are the types of parasomnias

non rem
rem

21

what are the feature of non rem parasomnias

non dreaming
confusional arousals
sleep walking
sleep terrors and paralysis
bruxism
restless legs and periodic limb movement disorder
can be complex behaviours (don't confuse with dissociation)

takes brain couple seconds to wake up, bit that wakes up is primitive - fight or flight or sex, so can do these actions without remebering

22

what are the features of REM parasomnias

often precede parkinsons
dreaming
simple behaviour
usually latter third of night

23

what are the peaks of onset of narcolepsy

15 and 36

24

is narcolepsy common

no

25

what is the clinical presentation of nacrolepsy

daytime sleepiness (involuntary somnolence during eating/ talking, may be severe, impossible to resist)
cataplexy (loss of muscle tone, triggered by emotion)
hypnagogic hallucinations (hallucinations occurring at onset of sleep)
sleep paralysis (unable to move upon falling asleep or awakening with retained consciousness)
rem behaviour disorder

26

what is rem sleep disorder

when people act out their dreams

27

what sleep disorder do all patients with parkinsons have

rem sleep behaviour disorder

28

what tests can be done to diagnose nacrolepsy

overnight polysomnography (overnight sleep test)
multiple sleep latency (sees how fast someone falls asleep: 4 20 min naps 2 hrs apart, record RRG, muscle activity and eye movements) = patients with narcolepsy will fall asleep quickly and immediately go into REM sleep

can also do lumbar puncture, would expect low hypocretin levels in narcolepsy