Neuroradiology and Brain Tumours Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Neuroradiology and Brain Tumours Deck (66)
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1

what can cause a headache due to raised ICP

mass, bleed, hydrocephalus, venous thrombosis, infection, oedema

2

what is CT good for

bony detail
spatial resolution
good with emergency/ ICU equipment
fast

3

what is CT bad for

soft tissue
detail
contrast not as good as MRI
high radiation

4

what is dark and light on CT

white things more dense
darkest thing is air

5

what is MRI good for

contrast
soft tissue resolution
depiction of anatomy
marrow and cord pathologies

6

what is MRI bad for

less bony detail
less spatial resolution
not compatible with equipment/ implants
not as quick- need patient cooperation

7

what are the different types of MRI

T1 and T2

T1
-fat, methemoglobin (subacute haematoma), mineral deposition, melanin, contrast material = bright/ hyperintense
-water, air= dark/ hypointense
GREY MATTER WILL BE DARK

T2
(two W's= water white)
-water, air= bright
-fat and 4 m's= dark
GREY MATTER WILL BE LIGHT

T2 flare
form of T2 (grey matter bright) that removes brightness of CSF in the image to look for oedema in the brain
GREY MATTER BRIGHT, CSF DARK

8

does white or grey matter have more myelin

white matter- will be dark in T2, bright in T1 MRI

9

what scan if you suspect an infarct in the brain

MRI (if blood vessel not flowing will show up white)

10

what scan for a brain haemorrhage

CT sensitive for acute haemorrhage but sensitivity lessens with time

time doesn't matter in MRI

if haemorrhage look for aneurysm with CT angiography

11

what vascular abnormality has a popcorn appearance on imaging

cavernoma (cluster of abnormal blood vessels)

12

what scan is used in acute stroke

CT- shows loss of distinction between grey and white matter

13

what imaging is used in all strokes

diffusion weight image

14

what is the hallmark for trauma imaging

CT

15

what can a haematoma in the brain cause

mid line shift, herniation

16

what type of dural haematoma will affect the shape of brain more

extra dural- sub dural can spread further across the brain, extra will create a convex shape

17

when will a tumour enhance with contrast

if vascular in brain only when high grade or if arises from dura (BBB)

18

what does low density around hydrocephalus on imagine mean

oedema in brain

19

what does demyelination look like on CT (T2 and flare)

predominantly affects white mater, inflammation around small venules and veins, lesions on the white matter. CT T2 and flare

20

what is an example of an non infective imflammatory brain condition

demyelination- MS

21

what are intrinsic or extrinsic brain tumours

within our outside of brain parenchyma

22

what are the most common presentations of brain tumours

progressive neurological deficit
motor weakness
headache
seizures

23

how can a tumour increase ICP

mass
oedema mass effect
blockage of CSF flow
haemorrhage

24

what symptoms does raised ICP cause

headache, vomiting, mental changes, seizures
if uncal herniation can cause blown pupil if compresses on oculomotor nerve

25

what are the types of brain herniations

cingulate (subflacine)
central (trans tentorial)
transcalvarial
uncal
upward cerebellar/ transtentorial
downward cerebellar (tonsillar)

26

what type of headache should make you think of brain tumour

worse in morning- wakes them up
increased with coughing/ leaning forward
may be associated with vomiting or symptoms similar to tension headaches/ migraines

27

what do you do if there is scary headache symptoms

always do fundoscopyto look for papilloedema

28

why do tumours cause headaches

raised ICP
invasion/ compression of dural/ blood vessels/ periosteum
double vision
difficulty focusing
extreme hypertension (cushings triad of raised ICP)
psychogenic

29

what does the parietal lobe do

processes sensory input
sensory discrimination
body orientation
primary somatic area
secondary somatic area

30

what does werknickes area do

language comprehension