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Flashcards in Neuropsychology Clinical Skills Deck (9)
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what is cognition

the mental processes involved in making sense of the world and the use of that information to guide behaviour.
the ability to perceive and react, process and understand, store and retrieve information, make decisions and produce appropriate responses.


what are the main causes of congitive dysfunction

neurodegenerative (alzheimers, MND, parkinsons, prion)
neurological conditions (epilepsy, NM disorders)
vascular (V dementia, stroke, sub arachnoid haemorrhage, AVM, small vessel disease, blood disorders)
inflammation (MS, lupus)
metabolic (mictochondrian, endocrine)
hereditary/ congenital (movement disorders, ataxia, chromosome disorders)
sleep disorders


when do you not screen someones cognition

Low GCS (<13), PTA, delirium, medically unstable, post-traumatic seizures, intoxicated, psychotic.
Not too frequently (practice effects).
Patient distressed or refuses.
Patient has learning disability.
ACE-III only suitable for age 50+
poor envirnoment


what are the ACE-III cut off

<82 impairment
82-88= borderline
89-100 no further assessment needed unless clinical concerns


what does ACE-III test



what are executive functions

A range of skills that allow a person to establish new ways of thinking and behaviour patterns; and to introspect. Associated with frontal brain regions.
-Cognitive functions:
Planning and organisation, problem solving, attention, goal setting.
Ability to initiate and sustain a response.
-Behaviour & Emotional regulation:
Impulse control, social awareness.
Empathy, theory of mind, aspects of personality, social cognition (including the ability to make social judgements) humour, self-awareness and self-reflection.


what can executive dysfunction look like

Severe attention disorder.
Inability to sustain goal directed behaviours.
Slowing, a lack of spontaneity, apathy and in the most severe cases akinetic mutism.
Deficits of inhibitory control, resulting in distractibility, hyperactivity, impulsive behaviour, disinhibition, hyper-sexuality, over-eating and argumentative behaviour.
Changes in personality, lack of empathy, unconcern for others, and inappropriate behaviour.


what does frontal assessment battery assess

basic executive functions


what are the fab cut offs

12 or less= dysfunction