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Flashcards in Anatomy 2 Deck (215)
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61

how would a lateral hemisection of the cors (brown sequard) affect:
motor
reflexes
sensation

motor- ipsilateral paralysis (CST crosses (85%) at medulla)

reflexes- ipsilateral

sensation:
-ipsilateral loss vibration and proprioception (MLS crosses at medulla)
-contralateral loss pof pain and temp (STT crosses segmentally)

62

how are the cranial nerves numbered

form anterior to posterior and medial to lateral on where they connect with CNS

63

what is in the optic canal

optic nerve and ophthalmic artery

64

what is the path of CN I

olfactory mucosa
cribiform plate of ethmoid
anterior cranial fossa
olfactor bulb (synapse)
olfactory tract
cortical areas

65

what is the path of CN II

retina
optic nerve
optic canal (middle cranial fossa)
around pituitary stalk
optic chiasm
forms optic tract
diencephalon

66

how do you test CN I

smell a familiar smell while covering the contralateral nostril

67

how do you test CN II

acuity (snellens)
colour (ishihara)
fields
relfexes (pupillary light)
fundoscopy

68

what is the path of CN III

midbrain (mesencephalon)
lateral wall of cavernous sinus
superior orbital fissure
orbit
(parasympathetics (pupil constriction) synapse in cilliary ganglion)

69

how do you test CN III parasympathetics

pupillary constriction

70

what is the path if CN IV

midbrain (mesencephalon) (exits via dorsal surface)
lateral wall of the cavernous sinus
superior orbital fissure
orbit
(superior oblique)

71

what is the path of CN VI

pontomedullary junction
within cavernous sinus
superior orbital fissure
orbit
(lateral rectus muscle)

72

what is in the cavernous sinus

internal carotid artery
CN III, IV, V (V1 and V2) and VI

73

how do you test the SO

look down and IN

74

how do you test IO

look up and in

75

how do you test superior and inferior rectus

SR up and out
IR down and out

76

what is the path of CN VIII

axons from cochlear and vestibular apparatus
internal accoustic meatus (post cranial fossa)
travels posteromedially to the pontomedullary junction

77

how do you test CN VIII

rinne and weber tests

78

what is the function of CN XI

motor to sternocleidomastoid and trapezius

79

what is the path of CN XI

cervical spinal cord
ascends through foramen magnum
jugular foramen in post cranial fossa
SCM (deep surface)
posterior triangle
trapezius and SCM

80

how do you test CN XI

shrug shoulders
flex neck and tern to opposite side

81

what is the path of CN XII

rootlets lateral to the pyramids of the medulla oblongata
hypoglossal canal (posterior cranial fossa)
descends lateral to carotid sheath
at hyoid turns anteriorly towards tongue

82

what does CN XII innervate

all the nerves ending in glossus except palatoglossus (vagus)

83

how do you test CN XII

Ask patient to stick tongue straight out
If both CNXII’s are functioning normally the tongue tip remains in the midline on protrusion
If there is unilateral CN XII pathology the tongue tip will point towards the side of the injured nerve

84

what are the modalities of CN V

V1 sensory
V2 sensory
V3 sensory and motor

85

what is the path of CN V

pos
inferior to tentorium cerebelli
cranial foramina:
-V1 SOF
-V2 foramen rotundum
-V3 foramen ovale

86

what does CN V1 supply

- The upper eyelid
- The cornea (corneal reflex)
- All the conjunctiva
- Skin of the root/bridge/tip of the nose

deep sensory:
Bones & soft tissues of the orbit (except the orbital floor & lower eyelid)
Upper anterior nasal cavity
Paranasal sinuses (except the maxillary sinus)
Anterior & posterior cranial fossae

87

what does CN V2 supply

- The skin of the lower eyelid
- The skin over the maxilla
- The skin of the ala of the nose
- The skin/mucosa of the upper lip

deep sensory:
Lower posterior nasal cavity
Maxilla & maxillary sinus
Floor of the nasal cavity/palate
Maxillary teeth & associated soft tissues (gingivae & mucosae)

88

what does CN V3 supply

- Skin over the mandible and temporomandibular joint
(apart from the angle of the mandible – supplied by C2,3 spinal nerves)

deep sensory:
Middle cranial fossa
Mandible
Anterior 2/3rds of the tongue
Floor of the mouth
Buccal mucosa
Mandibular teeth & associated soft tissues

89

what is the great auricular nerve and what does it do

(C2,3) – a sensory branch of the cervical plexus
Supplies: - The skin over the angle of the mandible & some of the external ear

90

what motor action does CN V3 have

jaw closing- masseter, temporalis, medial pterygoid

jaw opening- lateral pterygoid

tensor veli palatini
tensor tympani