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Flashcards in Anatomy 2 Deck (215)
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91

how do you test CN V

sensory
Ask the patient to close their eyes
Gently brush the skin in each dermatome with a fine tip of cotton wool
Ask the patient to tell you when they feel their skin being touched
Compare the 2 sides

motor
Palpate the strength of contraction of the masseter & temporalis by asking patient to clench their teeth
Ask the patient to open their jaw against resistance

92

what is the path of CN VII

pontomedullary junction
internal acoustic meatus (into petrous part of temporal bone)
stylomastoid foramen
parotid gland/ muscles of facial expression

93

what does the chorda tympani do

Taste buds of the anterior 2/3rds of the tongue
Parasympathetic supply to the submandibular & sublingual glands (salivation).

(branch of CN VII)

94

what supplies the stapedius

CN VII

95

what does stapedius do

Reduces stapes movement to protect the internal ear from excessive noise

96

what does CN VII do

sensory, motor, parasymp

motor- muscles of facial expression, stapedius

sensory- taste ant 2/3rds of tongue (c. tympani)

para- sublingual, submandibular, lacrimal and mucous glands

97

how do you test CN VII

raise eyebrows- frontalis
close eyes tightly- orbicularis oculi
smile- elevators of lips
puff out cheeks and hold air- orbicularis oris

98

what is the path of CN IX

medulla oblongata
jugular foramen
descends towards pharynx and mouth


To the :
stylopharyngeus muscle
parotid gland
pharyngeal mucosa
carotid body and sinus
posterior 1/3rd of tongue

99

what does CN IX do

General sensory to:

The posterior 1/3rd of the tongue
The mucosa of most of the nasopharynx and oropharynx
The mucosa of some of the laryngopharynx (some overlap with CN X territory)
The palatine tonsil
The eustachian tube
The middle ear cavity

Special sensory to:
The vallate papillae (with taste buds) of the posterior 1/3rd of the tongue

Visceral afferent to the carotid sinus baroreceptors & the carotid body chemoreceptors

Somatic motor
(Stylopharyngeus)

Parasympathetic (secretomotor) to the parotid gland (salivary)

100

how can you test CN IX

gag reflex

101

what is the path of the vagus nerve

lateral aspect of medulla oblongata
jugular foramen
supplies between palate and midgut
-runs within carotid sheath
-posterior to and between the common carotid artery and IJV
-gives of recurrent laryngeal branch
-right CN X lies on trachea
-left CN X lies on aortic arch
-both pass posterior to lung root and onto oesophagus
-pass through diaphragm with oesophagus at T10

both pass onto surface of stomach
branches pass to celiac and superior mesenteric ganglia follows GI arteries

102

what is the path of the two recurrent laryngeal nerves

Left recurrent laryngeal nerve curves under arch of the aorta
Right recurrent laryngeal curves under the right subclavian artery

103

how do you test CN X

Ask patient to say ‘ahhhhh’ – also tests CNV3
(MUSCLES OF PALATE)
Motor function
Uvula should lift straight up in midline
Unilateral pathology will pull uvula away from the non-functioning side

swallow water

listen to speech

104

what are the five layers of the scalp

SCALP
s= skin
C= connective tissue (contains arteries)
A= aponeurosis
L= loose connective tissue
P= pericranium (periosteum of the skull)

105

what do skull sutures do in skull fractures

help prevent fractures spreading

106

what bones make up the pterion

frontal, parietal, temporal, sphenoid

107

what artery courses over the deep aspect of the pterion

the middle meningeal artery

108

what is meningitis

inflammation (usually bacterial or viral infection) of the meninges

109

what supplies the sensory innervation to the dura mater

CN V

110

what meninges enlcoses the dural venous sinuses

dura mater

111

what is the diaphragm sellae

sheet of dura mater that forms a roof over the pituitary fossa

112

what is the tentorium cerebelli

sheet of dura mater that tents over the cerebellum
attaches to the ridges of the petrous temporal bones
has a central gap to allow the brainstem to pass through

113

what is the falx cerebri

dura mater midline structure that attaches to deep aspect of skull:
-from crista galli of the ethmoid bone anteriorly
-internal aspect of the sagittal suture
- to internal occipital protuberance posteriorly

it separates the left and right cerebral hemispheres

blends with tentorium cerebelli

114

what do cerebral veins do

drain venous blood from the brain into the dural venous sinuses

115

where is the confluence of dural venous sinuses

midline at internal occipital protuberance

116

what lines dural venous sinuses

endothelium

117

what is the danger triangle

are if face where there is connection between superficial facial veins and deep facial veins - infection here can spread backwards to cranium

118

what foramen does the vertebral artery go through

transverse foraminae in vertebrae then foramen mangum

119

how does the internal carotid enter the cranial cavity

cranial canal

120

what does the external carotid supply

neck face and scalp