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Flashcards in Anatomy 2 Deck (215)
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121

what does the right anterior cerebral artery supply

medial aspect of the right cerebral hemisphere

122

what links the anterior cerebral arteries

anterior communicating artery

123

what does the left middle cerebral artery supply

lateral aspect of the left cerebral hemisphere

124

what does the right posterior cerebral artery supply

posterior aspect of the right cerebral hemisphere including the visual cortex

125

what links the posterior cerebral arteries to the middle cerebral arteries

posterior communicating arteries

126

where is the circle of willis

in subarachnoid space
inferior to midbrain- close to pituitary stalk and optic chiasm

127

how much CSF is made each day and where

400-500mls
choroid plexus of the ventricles
reabsorbed via arachnoid granulations

128

what level does the subarachnoid space end

S2

129

where is the 3rd venticle

midline within the diencephalon

130

where is the 4th ventricle

between the cerebellum and pons

131

how does the CSF get from the lateral ventricles to the 3rd ventricle

foraminae of munro

132

where is CSF in the spinal cord

in subarachnoid space around it ans in central canal

133

what is hydrocephalus

when excessive production, obstruction to flow or inadequate reabsorption causes increased CSF volume

134

what is a ventricular peritonieal shunt

when a shunt catheter is tunnelled beneath the skin of the neck and chest and then sited within the peritoneal cavity to help hydrocephalus

135

where do cerebral arteries go between

brain to dural sinuses

136

where are the middle meningeal arteries

between bone and dura

137

what is an extradural haemorrhage

bleed between brain ans dura (middle meningeal artery- trauma to pterion)

138

what is a subdural haemorrhage

a bleed separates the dura from the arachnoid (cerebral veins- falls in the elderly)

139

what is a subarachnoid haemorrhage

bleed in to the csf of the subarachnoid space (ruptured circle of willis 'berry aneurysm'- congenital)

140

what is an uncal herniation

the uncus (medial part) of the temporal
lobe herniates inferior to the tentorium cerebelli

141

describe an infratentorial herniation

can be upward, downward or tonsillar:
-the cerebellar tonsils herniate into the foramen magnum

142

what does compression of the oculomotor nerve by an uncal herniation cause

ipsilateral fixed dilated pupil (blown pupil)

143

what is the basic function of the cerebellum and basal ganglia

adjust and coordinate movement

144

what is the flocculonodular lobe

ear like lobe on the cerbellum

145

how is the cerebellum attached to the brainstem

via 3 penduncles- middle, superior and inferior- made of white matter

146

what is the vermis

centre of the cerebellum

147

how does the cerebellum talk to the brainstem and thalamus

via deep cerebellar nuclei (deep grey matter)

148

what are the three layers of the cerebellum

outer- molecular (lots of neurones)
middle- purkinje (output cells- talks to brainstem)
inner- granular (>50% of neurones)

149

what are the afferet projections to the cerebellum (inputs)

spinal cord (from somatic proprioceptors and pressure receptors)
cerebral cortex (relayed via the pons)
vetsibular apparatus (via vestibular nuclei)

all enter via cerebellar peduncles and project mainly to granular layer

150

what are the efferent projections of the cerebellum (outputs)

(only output is via axons of purkinje cells which synapse at deep cerebellar nuclei and contribute to coordinating the functions of all the motor tracts of brain stem and spinal cord)
-corticospinal
-vestibulospinal
-rubrospinal