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Flashcards in Anatomy 2 Deck (215)
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151

where do most efferent axons of the deep cerebellar nuclei cross the midline and synapse

in the thalamus- which in turns send fibres to the motor cortex

152

what side if the body do the cerebral hemispheres influence

ipsilateral (lesions will have ipsilateral affects)

153

what will a unilateral hemispheric lesion cause

intention tremor, unsteady gait
NO weakness or sensory loss

154

what does bilateral cerebellar dysfunction cause

slowed, slurred speech (dysarthia)
bilateral incoordination of arms
staggering, wide based gait (cerebellar ataxia)

155

how does alcohol affect the cerebellar

causes bilateral cerebellar hemisphere dysfunction

156

what will a midline lesion in the cerebellum cause

disturbance of postural control

157

what does the vermis control

automonic information

158

what are the functions of the basal ganglia

facilitate purposeful movement
inhibit unwanted movement
role in posture and muscle tone

159

what are the 5 basal ganglia

1. caudate nucleus
2. putamen
3. globus pallidus
4. subthalamic nucleus
5. substantia nigra

1+2 = striatum
1+2+3 = corpus striatum
2+3 = lenticular nucleus

160

what are basal ganglia

a number of small masses of grey matter located near the base of each cerebral hemisphere

161

what is the direct pathway of the basal ganglia

Enhances outflow of thalamus, enhancing the desired movement

162

what is the indirect pathway of the basal ganglia

inhibits outflow of thalamus
prevents movement you don't want

163

what side of body to basal ganglia lesoins affect

in contrast to cerebellar lesions affect the contralateral side of the body

164

what DONT lesions of the basal ganglia cause

paralysis
sensory loss
loss of power
ataxia

165

what DO basal ganglia lesions cause

changes in muscle tone
dyskinesias (abnormal involuntary movements):
-temor (sinusoidal movements)
-chorea (rapid, asymmetrical movements, usually distal limb)
-myoclonus (muscle jerks)

166

where is the pathology in parkinsons

generation of dopaminergic neurones of the substatia nigra (direct pathway affected)

167

what are the signs of parkinsons

akineasia, rigidity and resting tremor

168

where is the pathology in huntingtons disease

autosomal dominant disorder causes progressive degeneration of the basal ganglia and cerebral cortex (indirect pathway affected- no inhibition of movement)

169

what are the signs of huntingtons

chorea and progressive dementia

170

list the modality, central connection and function of CN I

sensory
olfactory bulb (only CN to not synapse in thalamus before going to cortex)
innervates olfactory epithelium- olfaction

171

list the modality, central connection and function of CN II

sensory
cc=lateral geniculate nucleus, prectal nucleus
f= vision (innervates retina), pupillary light reflex

172

list the modality, central connection and function of CN III

motor and parasympathetics

motor
CC=oculomotor nucleus
f= eye movements (sup., inf,. medial rectus, inf. oblique), elevate eyelid (LPS)

para
cc=EWN
f= pupillary constriction and accommodation (innervates sphincter pupillae + cilliary muscle via ciliary ganglion)

173

list the modality, central connection and function of CN IV

motor
cc-trochlear nucleus
f- moves up (SO- down and out)
(only CN to exit posteriorly)

174

list the modality, central connection and function of CN V

sensory and motor

sensory
cc- trigeminal sensory nucleus
f- somatosensation (discriminative touch, vibration, pain, temp of face, scalp, cornea, nasal and oral cavities and cranial dural mater) via pontine trigeminal nucleus
proprioception of chewing via mesencephalic nucleus

motor
cc- trigeminal motor nucleus
f- opening and closing mouth (muscles of mastication)
tensor tympani

175

list the modality, central connection and function of CN VI

motor
cc- abducens nucleus
f- move eye (LR)

176

list the modality, central connection and function of CN list the modality, central connection and function of CN

sensory, motor, parasympathetics

sensory
cc- nucleus solitarius
f- taste of ant 2/3rds of tongue (via c. tympani)

motor
cc- facial nucleus
f- facial expression muscles, tenses stapedius

para
cc- superior salivatory nucleus
f- salivation and lacrimation (via submandibular and pterygopalatine ganglia)

177

list the modality, central connection and function of CN list the modality, central connection and function of CN

sensory
cc- vestibular nuclei, cochlear nuclei
f- vestibular sensation and hearing

178

list the modality, central connection and function of CN IX

sensory, motor and para

sensory (2)
1. f- general sensation for pharynx, posterior 1/3rd of tongue, eustachian tube, middle ear
cc- trigeminal sensory nucleus

2. f- taste to post 1/3rd of tongue (chemo and baroreception)
cc- nucleus solitarus

motor
cc- nucleus ambiguus
f- stylopharyngeus muslces (swallowing)

para
cc- inferior salivatory nucleus
f- salivation (parotid gland via otic ganglion)

179

list the modality, central connection and function of CN X

sensory motor and para

sensory (2)
1. general sensation for pharynx, larynx, trachea, oesophagus, external ear
cc- trigeminal sensory nucleus

2. visceral sensation, chemo and baro reception for thoracic and abdominal viscera, aortic bodies and aortic arch
cc- nucleus solitarius

motor
cc- nucleus ambiguis
f- speech and swallowing (soft palate, pharynx, larynx, upper oesophagus)

para
f- innervation of cardiac muscle, smooth muscle and glands or cardiovascular system, resp and GI tracts (thoracic and abdo viscera)
cc- dorsal motor nucleus of vagus

180

list the modality, central connection and function of CN XI

motor
cc- cervical spinal cord
f- SCM and trapezius- movement of head and shoulder