Flashcards in ANTENATAL CARE Deck (22):
What is the standard dose of folic acid that all women looking to become pregnant should be on?
What are the indications for giving women who are looking to become pregnant a higher dose of folic acid than the normal 400 micrograms?
Women who are obese
Women with diabetes
Women with epilepsy
Women with a previous child who has been affected by a neural tube defect
What is the increased dose of folic acid that should be given to women looking to become pregnant who have risk factors such as obesity, epilepsy, diabetes or those who have had a previous pregnancy affected by a neural tube defect?
Why do we recommend vitamin D supplementation in pregnant women?
Maternal vitamin D is important for fetal bone development, fetal lung development and reduction in neonatal immune conditions.
Low vitamin D levels are associated with impaired glucose tolerance and diabetes in the general population.
What is the standard dose of vitamin D that all pregnant women should be on?
10 micrograms (400 units) of vitamin D per day
What are the indications for giving pregnant women a higher dose of vitamin D than the normal 10 micrograms per day?
Obese (hence why Ruhmana needs to take it)
Increased skin pigmentation
Reduced exposure to sunlight
What is the increased dose of vitamin D that should be given to pregnant women who have risk factors for low levels of vitamin D?
High risk women are advised to take at least 1000 units per day.
What vitamin supplements should avoided in early pregnancy?
Vitamin A supplementation is teratogenic
What blood tests should be taken at booking appointment?
Full Blood Count
Group and Save - rhesus status
Combined screening test for trisomy 13, 18 and 21 - beta-HCG and PAPP-A
What are the combined parts of the combined screening test for trisomy 13, 18 and 21?
Blood test - beta-HCG (high) and PAPP-A (low)
USS - Nuchal translucency
What is the window for performing the combined screening test for trisomy 13, 18 and 21?
10th to 14th week gestation
If a patient misses the window for the combined screening test for trisomy 13, 18 and 21, what test will she be offered?
The quadruple test, a blood test that measures:
AFP - Low
beta-HCG - High
Oestriol - Low
It is less accurate than the combined screening test
What is considered a high risk result from the combined screening test?
A high risk result for both the combined and quad test is considered as >1:150 (i.e. between 1 in 2 and 1 in 150 risk).
If the combined screening test for trisomy 13, 18 and 21 yields a high risk result what diagnostic tests may be offered?
Non-invasive prenatal test (NIPT)
Chorionic villus sampling (CVS)
What is the non-invasive prenatal test (NIPT) for the diagnosis of trisomy 13, 18 and 21?
This is a maternal blood test, hence non-invasive. It allows testing of the fetal genome via cell-free feral DNA that is found in the maternal blood stream. It is not completely diagnostic but in the context of a high risk screening test, NIPT might be recommended.
What is amniocentesis in the context of trisomy 13, 18 or 21 diagnosis?
This is an invasive test that takes a small sample of amniotic fluid from around the baby under ultrasound guidance. It is done from 15 weeks gestation and women need to be aware that it carries a 1% risk of miscarriage.
What is chorionic villus sampling (CVS) in the context of trisomy 13, 18 or 21 diagnosis?
This too is an invasive test where a tiny piece of the developing placenta is taken through the abdomen (or via the cervix) under ultrasound guidance. This test is normally done earlier that amniocentesis, at 11-14 weeks gestation. Again, women need to be aware that this test carriers a 1-2% risk of miscarriage.
What risk factors would prompt you to screen a woman for gestational diabetes?
BMI above 30kg/m2
Previous pregnancy affected by gestational diabetes.
First-degree relative with diabetes
Previous macrosomic baby weighing more than 4.5kg
Family originates from South Asia, the Caribbean or the Middle East
Previous diagnosis of polycystic ovarian syndrome
How often should women with gestational diabetes be checking their blood sugars?
Daily fasting (best in the morning)
2 hours after every meal
What should the target blood glucose levels be for women diagnosed with gestational diabetes according to NICE?
Fasting: less than 5.6mmol/L
1 hour after meals: less than 7.8mmol/L or
2 hours after meals: less than 6.4mmol/L
Who should be involved in the management of a woman with gestational diabetes?
The MDT includes: