ENDOMETRIOSIS Flashcards Preview

OB/GYN > ENDOMETRIOSIS > Flashcards

Flashcards in ENDOMETRIOSIS Deck (23):
1

What is endometriosis?

A disease in which tissue that normally grows inside the uterus grows outside it

2

What is endometriosis occurring in the myometrium known as?

Adenomyosis

3

What proportion of women will be affected by endometriosis in their reproductive years?

10%

4

What are the theories surrounding how and why endometriosis occurs?

Retrograde menstruation/implantation theory

Lymphatic and venous embolization

Coelemic metaplasia

Immunological factors

5

What are the two most common sites for endometriosis?

Ovaries

Uterosacral ligaments

Pouch of Douglas

6

What are the other parts of the body can be affected by endometriosis?

Endometriosis has been diagnosed in every organ in the body except for the spleen. However, extrapelvic endometriosis is rare.

7

What is the main symptoms of endometriosis?

Cyclical pain prior to menstruation

8

What is the classic quartet of symptoms of endometriosis?

Secondary dysmenorrhea
Deep dyspareunia
Pelvic pain
Infertility

9

Other than the classic quartet of secondary dysmenorrhea, deep dyspareunia, pelvic pain and infertility, what other symptoms are commonly associated with endometriosis?

Dyschezia - pain on opening bowels
Ovulation pain
Chronic fatigue
Chronic pelvic pain

10

What are the complications of endometriosis?

Rupture - ovarian endometrioma rupture will cause acute, severe lower abdominal pain. The release of the very irritant 'chocolate' material from the cyst causes peritonism.

Fibrosis and scarring - cause problems with reproductive organs as well as colonic or ureteric obstruction.

Ovarian cancer - a rare complication of endometriosis

11

What proportion of infertile women are found to be affected by endometriosis?

1/3rd

12

Why does endometriosis cause infertility?

Dense adhesions
Tubal and ovarian damage and distortion
Release of substances such as prostaglandins, which affect ovulation and tubal mobility

13

What clinical signs may be found on examination of someone with endometriosis?

Slightly distended abdomen
Tender abdomen especially during menses

Tender uterus
Retroverted or retroflexed fixed uterus
Thickening of cardinal and uterosacral ligament
Endometrial nodules may be palpable on bimanual examination
Pain on moving cervix (stretching the uterosacral ligaments)

14

What single investigation effectively diagnoses and assesses the severity of endometriosis?

Laparoscopy

15

What will be seen on laparoscopy of someone with endometriosis?

Blue-black 'powder burn' lesions - areas of haemosiderin pigmentation

Opaque white areas of peritoneum

Red lesions

Glandular lesions

16

What is the differential diagnosis for pelvic pain?

Endometriosis
Pelvic inflammatory disease
Pelvic pain syndrome
Submucous fibroids
Ovarian accident
Adhesions

17

What percentage of women with endometriosis will have recurring symptoms within a year of stopping treatment?

40%

18

What medical treatment is available to treat endometriosis?

Medical treatment is aimed at mimicking either pregnancy or post-menopause state, as endometriotic lesions regress during these times.


Combined oral contraceptive pill (more often used as maintenance therapy)
Progestogens
Mirena hormone coil

Gonadotrophin (LH) releasing hormone analogues (LHRH/GnRH)
Gestrinone
Danazol - rarely used

19

What are the side effects of progestogens?

Break through bleeding
Weight gain
Oedema
Acne
Abdominal bloating
Increased appetite
Decreased libido

20

What are the side effects of gonadotrophin releasing hormone analogues?

Hot flushes
Break through bleeding
Vaginal dryness
Headaches
Decreased libido
Bone density loss

21

How can the side effects of gonadotrophin releasing hormone analogues be reduced?

Using 'add-back' continuous combined hormone replacement therapy

22

What is gestrinone?

Synthetic steroid with mild androgenic, marked antioestrogenic and antiprogestogenic activity.

23

What are the side effects of danazol and gestrinone?

Increased weight
Break through bleeding
Muscle cramps
Decreased breast size
Hot flushes
Emotional lability
Oily skin
Acne
Hirsutism
Headache
Increased libido
Hoarseness or Deepening of voice