Flashcards in Arthrology of the Vertebral Column Deck (138)
What is the maximum number of common ligaments identified with a vertebral couple?
What is the reason that nine common ligaments are identified but only eight will be attached at any specific vertebral couple?
The ligamentum nuchae and supraspinous ligaments attach to the spinous tubercles, but only one of these will be identified at a single vertebral couple
What is the number of true intervertebral discs identified in the adult?
What is the organizational pattern for glycosaminoglycans in the lumbar nucleus pulposus?
They typically lack a binding site for hyaluronic acid and are thus non-aggregated
What cell is associated with the nucleus pulposus until about age eleven?
Which type of collagen is dominant in the nucleus pulposus?
Collagen type II
What is unusual about the cervical annulus fibrosus?
It lacks any lamellar or layered organization
What is the appearance of the cervical annulus fibrosus?
A horse-shoe with the anterior margin thick and the lateral margins tapering to the uncinate processes; the posterior margin is thin
What compensates for the thinness of the posterior part of the cervical annulus fibrosus?
Posterior longitudinal ligament
What is the organizational pattern for glycosaminoglycans in the lumbar annulus fibrosus?
They typically have a binding site for hyaluronic acid and dare thus aggregated
What is the consequence of aggregated glycosaminoglycans in the lumbar annulus fibrosus?
The annulus fibrosus will retain water under deformation conditions
Which type of collagen is dominant in the annulus fibrosus?
Collagen type I
What is the organizational pattern for collagen fibers in the annulus fibrosus?
They are parallel with one another in a single lamellus and angled
What is the organization of collagen fibers between lamellae?
Collagen fibers will be angled in the opposite direction such that a spiral - counterspiral organization is observed
What is the average angle of collagen fibers with the annulus fibrosus?
They average 50 to 60 degrees
What is the origin for the cells of the annulus fibrosus?
What cell type is associated with the annulus fibrosus?
Fibroblast and fibrocyte
What is the cartilage end plate derived from?
The epiphyseal plate
What part of the vertebral body will the cartilage end plate cover?
The cancellous bone at the top or bottom of the vertebral body
What is the principal type of collagen fiber within the cartilage end plate?
The type II collagen fiber
What is the direction of collagen fibers within the cartilage end plate?
Collagen fibers are aligned anterior to posterior
What is the earliest indicator of intervertebral disc pathology or degeneration?
Changes in the histology of the cartilage end plate
What part of the intervertebral disc is innervated?
The outer lamellae of the annulus fibrosus
What part of the cervical intervertebral disc is highly innervated?
The middle third of the annulus fibrosus
What are the types of receptor endings in the intervertebral disc?
Nociceptors and proprioceptors
What is the relationship between size of the intervertebral disc and receptor endings?
The larger the disc, the greater the variety of receptor endings
What nerve(s) have been shown to give off the sinus vertebral/sinu-vertebral/recurrent meningeal nerve?
The mixed spinal nerve, ventral primary ramus, dorsal primary ramus, gray ramus communicans, and white ramus communicans have all been implicated
The recurrent meningeal/sinu-vertebral/sinus vertebral nerve has typically been shown to originate from which source?
The gray ramus communicans
What part of the intervertebral disc is innervated by the recurrent meningeal/sinu-vertebral/sinus vertebral nerve?
The outer lamellae of the annulus fibrosus at the posterior part of the intervertebral disc