Arthrology of the Vertebral Column Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Arthrology of the Vertebral Column Deck (138)
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1

What is the maximum number of common ligaments identified with a vertebral couple?

Eight

2

What is the reason that nine common ligaments are identified but only eight will be attached at any specific vertebral couple?

The ligamentum nuchae and supraspinous ligaments attach to the spinous tubercles, but only one of these will be identified at a single vertebral couple

3

What is the number of true intervertebral discs identified in the adult?

Twenty-three

4

What is the organizational pattern for glycosaminoglycans in the lumbar nucleus pulposus?

They typically lack a binding site for hyaluronic acid and are thus non-aggregated

5

What cell is associated with the nucleus pulposus until about age eleven?

Notochord cells

6

Which type of collagen is dominant in the nucleus pulposus?

Collagen type II

7

What is unusual about the cervical annulus fibrosus?

It lacks any lamellar or layered organization

8

What is the appearance of the cervical annulus fibrosus?

A horse-shoe with the anterior margin thick and the lateral margins tapering to the uncinate processes; the posterior margin is thin

9

What compensates for the thinness of the posterior part of the cervical annulus fibrosus?

Posterior longitudinal ligament

10

What is the organizational pattern for glycosaminoglycans in the lumbar annulus fibrosus?

They typically have a binding site for hyaluronic acid and dare thus aggregated

11

What is the consequence of aggregated glycosaminoglycans in the lumbar annulus fibrosus?

The annulus fibrosus will retain water under deformation conditions

12

Which type of collagen is dominant in the annulus fibrosus?

Collagen type I

13

What is the organizational pattern for collagen fibers in the annulus fibrosus?

They are parallel with one another in a single lamellus and angled

14

What is the organization of collagen fibers between lamellae?

Collagen fibers will be angled in the opposite direction such that a spiral - counterspiral organization is observed

15

What is the average angle of collagen fibers with the annulus fibrosus?

They average 50 to 60 degrees

16

What is the origin for the cells of the annulus fibrosus?

Sclerotomites

17

What cell type is associated with the annulus fibrosus?

Fibroblast and fibrocyte

18

What is the cartilage end plate derived from?

The epiphyseal plate

19

What part of the vertebral body will the cartilage end plate cover?

The cancellous bone at the top or bottom of the vertebral body

20

What is the principal type of collagen fiber within the cartilage end plate?

The type II collagen fiber

21

What is the direction of collagen fibers within the cartilage end plate?

Collagen fibers are aligned anterior to posterior

22

What is the earliest indicator of intervertebral disc pathology or degeneration?

Changes in the histology of the cartilage end plate

23

What part of the intervertebral disc is innervated?

The outer lamellae of the annulus fibrosus

24

What part of the cervical intervertebral disc is highly innervated?

The middle third of the annulus fibrosus

25

What are the types of receptor endings in the intervertebral disc?

Nociceptors and proprioceptors

26

What is the relationship between size of the intervertebral disc and receptor endings?

The larger the disc, the greater the variety of receptor endings

27

What nerve(s) have been shown to give off the sinus vertebral/sinu-vertebral/recurrent meningeal nerve?

The mixed spinal nerve, ventral primary ramus, dorsal primary ramus, gray ramus communicans, and white ramus communicans have all been implicated

28

The recurrent meningeal/sinu-vertebral/sinus vertebral nerve has typically been shown to originate from which source?

The gray ramus communicans

29

What part of the intervertebral disc is innervated by the recurrent meningeal/sinu-vertebral/sinus vertebral nerve?

The outer lamellae of the annulus fibrosus at the posterior part of the intervertebral disc

30

What forms the anterior neural plexus of the vertebral column?

Fibers from teh ventral primary ramus

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