Flashcards in Regions of the Vertebral Column: Cervical Region (Atypical Cervical Vertebrae: C2/Axis/Epistropheus Deck (18)
What names are given to C2?
Axis or epistopheus
What unique vertebral body modification is characteristic of C2?
The dens or odontoid process
How many joint surfaces are present on the odontoid process of C2?
Which joint classifications are represent at the odontoid process of C2?
Fibrous (amphiarthrosis) syndesmosis joint and synovial pivot (diarthrosis trochoid) joint
What is the name given to the odontoid process when the facet for the fovea dentis lies above the groove for the transverse atlantal ligament and the attachment sites for the apical-dental and alar ligaments appear to be directed posterior?
What is the name given to the odontoid process when the facet for the fovea dentis lies below the groove for the transverse atlantal ligament and the attachment sites for the apical-dental and alar ligaments appear to be directed anterior?
What ligament forms the anterior boundary for the spinal canal above C2?
What ligament forms the anterior boundary for the spinal canal below C2?
Posterior longitudinal ligament
What lies on the upper surface of the pedicle of C2?
The superior articular process
What attaches to the lamina of C2?
Obliquus capitis inferior muscle, posterior atlanto-axial ligament, ligamentum flavum
What is the appearance of the superior articular facets of C2?
They are asymmetrical and slightly convex
What is the facet orientation of the superior articular facet of C2?
Backward, upward, and lateral (BUL)
What is the orientation of the inferior articular facets of C2?
Forward, lateral , and down (FoLD)
What is the classification of the zygapophyseal joints of C2?
Synovial plane (diarthrosis arthrodia) joint
What muscle attaches to the articular processes of C2?
What is the gender variation for the transverse diameter of C2?
Males: 57 mm
Females: about 50 mm
What muscles attach to the transverse process at C2?
Levator scapulae, middle scalene, splenius cervicis , longissimus cervicis, and intertransversarii